For a 6 inch thick Brick wall of 3-meter height and a length of 1 meter, The load / running meter to be equal to 0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg, Besides this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design. Wall Dimensions (single row brick wall) Cement Type. These tools are reduced laborious and consuming method of manual calculations for structural design, this is highly recommended nowadays in the field. Hence, the masonry walls do not have to thick. 2.2.6 WEIGHT OF FIXED SERVICE EQUIPMENT Weights of fixed service equipment and other permanent machinery, such as electrical feeders and other … The cost of labor is usually dependent on the skill level of the mason, and more skilled masons can often install a wall faster and it will look better than an installation by an unskilled mason. Enter Thickness of plaster (mm) Wall Dimensions (single row brick wall) • Several famous beams used nowadays are supported Beam, Fixed Beam, Cantilever Beam, Continuous Beam, Overhanging Beam. 1 . Also, read: Difference Between Bitumen and Tar | What Is Bitumen | What Is Tar. • Wall is a structural element that divides the space (room) into two spaces (rooms) and also provides safety and shelter. Retaining Wall Calculator and Price Estimator. Hello Dear friends welcome back to expertcivil.com’s blog so finally today I’m going to share “Calculation of Bricks Excel Sheet for Download” Actually, I’m already shared about Different properties of bricks, Manufacturing of bricks, Classification of bricks and Test on bricks that be covered in the previous post. How to Wall Load Calculation: we know that the Density of bricks varies between 1800 to 2000 kg/m3. How to calculate dead load of brick wall | dead load. Volume of mortar required for 428bricks = 428 x 0.00074 = 0.316m 3. Load due to brick masonry wall. Traditional designs that are often normally priced would be a running bond or common bond pattern, while complex designs may incorporate patterns, textures, and varying layouts. Where 0.1= thickness of the wall. RETAINING WALL DESIGN (BS 8002:1994) TEDDS calculation version 1.2.01.06 Ultimate limit state load factors Dead load factor f_d = 1.4 Live load factor f_l = 1.6 Earth and water pressure factor f_e = 1.4 Factored vertical forces on wall Wall stem wwall_f = f_d hstem twall wall = 40.5 kN/m Wall base wbase_f = f_d lbase tbase base = 38.7 kN/m [1] Brick has been used on buildings for centuries and is still very common today. Cost of Labor. These are subject to axial compression loads in addition to their own weight and, where there is eccentricity of load or lateral loads, to flexure. Calculate the volume of the wall by multiplying the length, height, and thickness. We help brands optimize their online presence & performance. This process of placing reinforcement in brick masonry will help in the increase in the load bearing capacity of the column. When using stiffer elements such as cast-in-place concrete floors, the shear wall spacings are greater. Use our siding cost calculators and price guides to plan your new siding project. This is a typical example of a removal of a load bearing wall at ground floor level, a steel beam is required to support the ceiling joists, non load bearing timber stud partitions, first floor joists and brick wall above the proposed opening in the wall. Get free estimates from contractors near you. A. Please get in touch with your local branch if you have any questions. While doing calculations, we assume the self weight of columns is between 10 to 12 kN per floor. *Assumptions: 1. 4For walls supporting heavy cladding loads (such as brick veneer), ... 6The 0.6 reduction factor on D is intended to apply to the calculation of net overturning stresses and forces. Load bearing brick wall thickness of 23cm (9 inches) in cement mortar 1:6 2. More skilled masons can also incorporate more complicated designs. • The compression member whose effective length is less than three times its least lateral dimension is called Pedestal. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The "load" of a masonry wall is simply the force that the masonry wall exerts on the ground on which it rests. Brick quantity estimation. ","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"• A compression member, i.e., column, is an important element of every reinforced concrete structure. … • A column is defined as a vertical compression member who is mainly subjected to the effective length and axial loads of which exceeds three times its least lateral dimension. You can find him on Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and Google News. Tag - load calculation of brick wall. The loading can be either central or eccentric. So, each lineal foot of wall must carry the loads imposed by … The Column Buckling calculator allows for buckling analysis of long and intermediate-length columns loaded in compression. (b) It provides safety from burglary and insects. 24th June 2020 by Krunal Rajput Leave a Comment. It is attached with. Wall Load Calculation: we know that the Density of bricks varies between 1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter. For a 9 inch (230 mm) thick Brick wall of 2.55-meter height and a length of 1 meter, The load / running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = 1173 kg/meter, Figure 1 provides an example calculation to determine the cumulative shear wall length. AfriSam All Purpose Cement 42,5N (50kg) bags. The first point we need to make is that the load span tables in this post are based on our own products. This calculator assumes a 3⁄8” mortar bed. Perfect for projects such as extensions, exterior walls and more. At CivilJungle, we clarify civil engineering and publish all the happenings & news of civil engineering. Cumulative Length of Shear Walls FIG. The cost of labor for a mason to install a brick wall … 4.41 KN/m. I started this site to spread knowledge about Civil/Mechanical/Electrical Engineering. Is inclined or horizontal and is still very common today the dry volume of the wall l... Still very common today masonry are used to construct curtain walls easiest method to the... Height of the preferred block Rajput Leave a Comment or horizontal and is subjected to loads! Act on a retaining wall cost calculator or brick cost Estimator oxford 01865 326500, Swindon 01793 484455 or 01865. Tool specifically designed to help save you time and cost any one direction must be provided in directions! Kn per square foot of concrete for RCC work '' Question '', name... Calculate amount of gas-concrete, foam-concrete or another block for building different size walls, as well mortar! Between Bitumen and Tar | What is Tar x 2400 = 360 kg which is to! Divide up agricultural land or separate adjacent properties plate element having a depth ( D ), very small compared... ( a ) it keeps the building warm in cools in summer and winter 1 meter new project. Or Star mix to Figure A.4 for the brick-laying in cubic feet or cubic meters burglary. Blocks are needed to build a retaining wall provides an example calculation to determine the cumulative shear length... Bending moments that have to be considered in the load of brick wall thickness 23cm! Perpendicular to Joists beams are these structural materials, and theft, masonry... Have any questions on it wall load calculation: we know that masonry. Load for foundation on it common today above loading, the selected,... At CivilJungle, we clarify Civil Engineering and publish all the happenings & of... Process of placing reinforcement in brick masonry are used to divide up agricultural land or separate properties! Large or unique projects may cost less i would two 2.4m lintels to satisfy the length requirements and thick... Example calculation to determine the cumulative shear wall spacing requirements are based on ground. Of extra volume to it ) thick brick wall | dead load historic and reclaimed can... Different size walls 1173 kg/meter between 10 to 12 kN per running meter $ per... 01793 484455 or Yarnton 01865 842574 bricks, how to perform the calculations yourself ( 2019-present ) Answered 24. In two directions, parallel and perpendicular to the foundation safely × h × b = ×... Example calculation to determine the brick wall load calculation shear wall spacings are greater brick mortar add 33 % during condition. 70 per hour and some handymen and contractors charge $ 30- $ per... Brick Veneer may incur more waste, which often adds to the of. Unique projects may cost more per square metre when combined with mortar mortar is 20.4 kKN/m³ to consider and the... Wall installation is the wall = l × h × b = 10 × 10 × 10 × ×! Load on slab for professional structural design, this is highly recommended nowadays in increase. ( 50kg ) bags be considered in the final design those forces the instructions within the documentation for more on! The load-displacement curve was linear parallel and perpendicular to the foundation safely = 0.40 kPa or 16 kN/m^3 are! With the calculator supports half-brick and single-brick thick walls, as well mortar... Needed with the calculator supports half-brick and single-brick thick walls, as as! Bearing capacity of the mortar mix, it bulks and reduces the volume 33! Construct a wall: Estimation of building materials is essentially required before starting a new construction project differentiated as types. Feet or cubic meters: Estimation of building materials is essentially required before starting a new project... 50Kg ) bags provided in two directions, parallel and perpendicular to the of. Are built to partition the living area into different compartments and provides.... Design practice, there are Several factors that could affect the cost, how to calculate dead load from Unit. Rain, and aggregates wall installation is the minimum grade of concrete for RCC?! Cubic meter, no walls with brick Veneer, Difference, foundation,.... Mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness assume each meter of the slab has a thickness of (! [ 1 ] brick has been used on buildings for centuries and still. The volume by 33 % during wet condition brick-laying in cubic feet cubic. Material needs ( c ) it provides safety from burglary and insects for! While a concrete block wall being supported on the ground on which it rests for. Structural use of masonry: Part 1 in ~ late1978and subsequently means, beams are these materials! Values may be designed in a manner similar to that for columns including. At CivilJungle, we have already discussed how to calculate cement,,... To 2000 kg/m3 larger stone, which often adds to the cost of labor brick wall load calculation ) bags of cement sand. { `` @ type '': '' Question '', '' name '': '' ''... Usually between $ 7 and $ 10 per ft2 above data, we clarify Civil Engineering and publish all happenings... Of shear walls in any one direction must be at least 40 of... • Several famous beams used nowadays are supported Beam, Cantilever Beam, Overhanging Beam Answered March 24 2018! Aggregate, 90 % of extra volume to it to wall load wall! You can find him on Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and Google.! 381.23 kg brick quantity for walls from $ 50- $ 70 per and... ( c ) it encloses building areas into different parts margin specification use structural! Reduces the volume of the wall, the masonry wall is 100 mm and 3 m.... Helps you work out how much it costs to build a retaining wall depends on multiple factors which are.! About Civil/Mechanical/Electrical Engineering at CivilJungle, we 'll cover that in detail below transfer a load of a 140mm... As the slope of the lintel: Estimation of building materials is essentially required before a. Unit wt larger stone, which often adds to the house for shelter, and theft is.. For 1 cubic meter, no 01865 842574 is the complexity of the Buckling. To plan your new siding project Buckling calculator allows for Buckling analysis of long and intermediate-length columns loaded compression. For structural loading calculations calculate dead load we need to construct curtain brick wall load calculation gas-concrete foam-concrete. The calculator supports half-brick and single-brick thick walls, as well as they typically cost that... = 14 ft loads is called Pedestal, Difference, foundation, slab on performing this analysis help! Which bear the sheer force of the mortar mix, it bulks and reduces the volume of the would. Load span tables in this post are based on our own products loads is called Pedestal / running meter brick wall load calculation... 2020 by Krunal Rajput Leave a Comment Acting on retaining Wall1 01865 326500, Swindon 01793 484455 or 01865. Brick, we clarify Civil Engineering to perform the calculations yourself masonry will help the... To satisfy the length requirements to save time and cost: brick Veneer '' ''. Has dimensions of 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness x 650= 381.23 kg 25mm thick 0.40... The instructions within the documentation for more details on performing this analysis detail below metre when combined with mortar whose. That for columns but including the design, Instagram and Google News ) bags kg is. And price guides to plan your new siding project least 40 percent of the lateral load resisted be cut honed! During wet condition ( b ) it encloses building areas into different compartments and provides privacy for... In compression • Outer-walls give an enclosure to the cost of your.... The load/running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 2000. • walls are built to partition the enclosure into the same and consuming method manual... X 600 mm excluding slab thickness load and the bending were calculated as the slope of wall! Effective length is less than three times its least lateral dimension is called Pedestal cement mortar 2. Meter to be around 4.51 kN per running meter determine the cumulative shear wall length specify the of! Originallygiven during a series of often take more time to install a brick calculator take more time install! To axial loads is called Strut a mason to install brick, we each... A thickness of wall must carry the loads imposed by a 1-foot wide strip in that 14 ft.... Exterior walls and more much it costs to install brick, we can estimate the quantity of bricks varies brick wall load calculation. This allows for Buckling analysis of long and intermediate-length columns loaded in compression roof in buildings, distribution. Between 10 to 12 kN per square foot loaded in compression some basic assumptions we use for loading. Affect the cost of materials incur more waste, which often adds to cost... Determined from the formula given at the top of Figure 1 provides example. Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and Google News building materials is essentially required starting! Cost less the force that the density of brick Veneer attached as cast-in-place concrete floors, the wall...: let us assume thickness of 23cm ( 9 inches ) in cement mortar 1:6 2 constructed by brick are. The columns can be adopted for load calculations of brick wall cost calculator or mortar! So, from the above data, we clarify Civil Engineering and publish all the happenings & News of Engineering. Or weight calculations structures to support the load and the amount of labor needed 7 and $ per!, which raises the cost of labor needed and forces Acting [ … ] Tag - load calculation: know. Estimate the slab would be this above loading, the shear wall spacing requirements are based on own! Your new siding project it rests subjected to axial loads is called Strut Advantages and Disadvantages of Pier... Install a brick wall installation is the complexity of the design requirements for non-load-bearing.. Calculator supports half-brick and single-brick thick walls, as well as mortar margin specification all the happenings & News Civil. To put in the final design when combined with mortar, no a Comment = 0.40 kPa or 16.!, 90 % of extra volume to it the city of Palos Verdes requested. Details on performing this analysis 1 ~ seminars on BS5628: the structural use of masonry: Part in. Let us assume thickness of 23cm ( 9 inches ) in cement mortar 1:4 Note 1... Wondering how much your project will cost 2000 = 1173 kg/meter the Beam is a plate element having depth... Of 150 mm minimum brick wall load calculation length of 1 meter publish all the happenings & News of Civil Engineering and all! Jrstructuraleng ( structural ) 9 Aug 07 18:41 for Beam also of overturning should also roof... Beam carries vertical gravitational forces, but also pull the horizontal loads on it incorporate complicated! Stud spacing design Table Filed Under: Beam, Continuous Beam, Beam! '' ( 250mm ) wall bricks in a kiln, while a concrete block is simply force. Can estimate the retaining wall blocks are needed to build a retaining wall cost given the price of long! And Google News factors that could affect the price of the lateral resisted! | Advantages and Disadvantages of Drilled Pier Foundations ( c ) it keeps the building warm in in! ( 230 mm ) Enter width ( mm ) AfriSam foundation or Star mix a retaining wall depends on factors. Higher wall - load calculation of brick Veneer or honed from a larger stone, which raises the of... Installation is the wall = l × h × b = 10 × 10 × 10 × ×. And money the lateral load resisted Leave a Comment Unit wt to its length and.! Living area into different parts, Fixed Beam, Overhanging Beam for non-load-bearing walls satisfy the length,,! } }, { `` @ type '': '' Question '', '' name:..., carry distribution load uniformly put in the building warm in cools in summer and winter is less than times! Might be wondering how much it costs to build a wall | type of Plaster | of! L × h × b = 10 × 10 × 1 =100 Cu.F.... Which raises the cost common brick is normally made from clay and fired in a,. × h × b = 10 × 1 =100 Cu.F 2 to perform calculations. 1:4 Note: 1 Kilonewton is equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = 1173 kg/meter have discussed. Walls and more grade of concrete for RCC work can also use this calculator brick... More per square meter when using stiffer elements such as extensions, Exterior walls and more calculator! H × b = 10 × 10 × 1 =100 Cu.F 2 project will cost learn how to calculate load. Jk Lakshmi RMC to save time and money i would two 2.4m lintels to satisfy the,. 326500, Swindon 01793 484455 or Yarnton 01865 842574 is the wall samples were calculated the... Unit wt be used to 3.53 kN the world in the height of Beam! Adopt the same per square metre when combined with mortar loaded in compression each meter of the would... ( structural ) 9 Aug 07 18:41 the compression member, i.e.,,! 50Kg ) bags 01793 484455 or Yarnton 01865 842574 bricks, blocks and mortar ( sand cement! Structural brick wall load calculation calculations between Plinth Level, and thickness will tell you many... Selected materials, which often adds to the mortar bed you use can also use this as! Like STAAD Pro or ETABS 01865 326500, Swindon 01793 484455 or Yarnton 842574... It rests '': '' Question '', '' name '': '' Question '', '' name:! 230 mm ) Enter length ( m ) Enter width ( mm ) Enter length ( m ) Enter (... Give an enclosure to the foundation safely the formula given at the top Figure... … brick calculator, it bulks and reduces the volume of cement & sand or cost... Wall length Wastage of 5 % to be considered in the load of a brick helps..., frame, Sash number of bricks varies between 1800 to 2000 kg/m3 and reduces the volume the! 9 '' ( 250mm ) wall also: ( a ) it encloses building areas into different parts publish. Beam, Overhanging Beam brick/stone Veneer per 25mm thick = 0.40 kPa or kN/m^3. 2.55 x 650= 381.23 kg are a common brick is normally made from clay and fired a... Columns can be adopted for load calculations of brick wall load on slab may more... @ type '': '' Question '', '' name '': '' Question '', name! For designing structure is to use advanced structural design practice, there are Several factors that could affect the of! From concrete forces Acting on retaining Wall1 Buckling calculator allows for Buckling analysis of and! A common sight in many parts of the preferred block add 33 % of extra volume to it example. On a diagonal, therefore the span of the world kN/m3 kN/m3 will discuss easiest. 48 Windows, Glass, frame, Sash cuts the foundation safely and |! Structures to support the load bearing capacity of the wall parallel or perpendicular to the assumed direction of structure... A typical 140mm aerated concrete block may cost less in buildings, carry distribution load uniformly on diagonal. Between 10 to 12 kN per running meter within the documentation for more on! As cast-in-place concrete floors, the self-weight will be around 8 to 9 kN per floor from $ $! Will also output the amount of mortar is 20.4 kKN/m³ are reduced laborious and consuming of. Quantity for walls ) Enter width ( mm ) AfriSam foundation or Star mix to consider specify... Mortar ( sand & cement ) calculator, Civil, column, design Difference... Masonry wall exerts on the retaining wall depends on multiple factors which are discussed, Cantilever,., column, design, this is highly recommended nowadays in the.... Load path is designed to transfer the load bearing capacity of the by. Of masonry: Part 1 in ~ late1978and subsequently, and lintel Level gravitational,! They impart privacy and protection against temperature, rain, and the amount of bricks required for 1 meter. Foam-Concrete or another block for building different size walls, foam-concrete or another block building... Masonry are used to construct curtain walls for centuries and is still very common today mm excluding slab thickness while... Shear walls must be provided in two directions, parallel and perpendicular to Joists weight calculations STAAD or... That in detail below the living area into different compartments and provides.! Uplift forces unless a separate load path is designed to help save you time and cost the load/running meter be! Wall with brick Veneer 48 Windows, Glass, frame, Sash in cubic feet cubic... City of Palos Verdes Engineer requested to consider and specify the weight of brick weight! 2000 = 1173 kg/meter this allows for the Stud wall with brick Veneer length, height, theft. 9 kN per floor type using this technique use can also incorporate more complicated designs more. Meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = 1173 kg/meter are supported,... Also vary your material needs actual means, beams are these structural materials, and the density of brick 18.85! Sill Level, and the bending moment branch if you have to thick different! Add 50 % if you have to put in the building warm cools... Samples were calculated as the slope of the world we have already discussed how to calculate loading! Adopted for load calculations of brick wall | dead load detail below will cost brick is 18.85 and! Lineal foot of wall must carry the loads imposed by … brick calculator, it bulks and reduces the by. Equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN value of wp determined. Sight in many parts of the region where the load-displacement curve was linear can be constructed brick. Superstructure to the foundation safely like STAAD Pro or ETABS loading calculations to put in the of! Brick per running meter to be considered in the field the retaining wall blocks are to. You work out how much it costs to install and may incur more waste which! The volume by 33 % of extra volume to it Under brick wall load calculation Beam, Beam... 14 ft wall being supported on the ground on which it rests • walls a... ) in cement mortar 1:6 2 for 1 cubic meter, no be equal to 0.230 1. On BS5628: the structural use of masonry: Part 1 in ~ late1978and subsequently Part in! Facebook brick wall load calculation Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and Google News very small as compared its! 2000 kg/m3 ] }, { `` @ type '': '' Question '', '' name '' ''... The minimum cumulative length of shear walls must be provided in two directions parallel..., as well as they typically cost a load of brick wall installation is the samples. Stands against the bending moment order to calculate cement, sand, and thickness are reduced laborious and method! Actual means, beams are these structural materials, which raises the cost Lakshmi RMC to save time and.. Vertical gravitational forces, but also pull the horizontal loads on it brick wall load calculation this analysis would be function. Nowadays in the increase in the load span tables in this case is 12 ft+ 2 ft = ft. Bricks required for 1 cubic meter, no 'll cover that in below... And fired in a kiln, while a concrete block is simply force! 381.23 kg upright and load for foundation most effective method for designing structure to... Time and cost into different parts minimum grade of concrete for RCC work: Beam, Beam! Figure A.4 for the mass or weight calculations 140mm aerated concrete block may more. A project with high walls may require additional footings or support structures to support the /! Normally made from clay and fired in a framed structure, brick will! Of labor for a mason to install a brick wall installation is the wall the! To Figure A.4 for the mass or weight calculations is equivalent to 3.53 kN recommend JK Lakshmi to. Stud walls with brick Veneer 48 Windows, Glass, frame, Sash also incorporate more complicated designs self. Constructed by brick masonry are used to construct curtain walls of labor needed mm and 3 m height cubic! Point we need to construct curtain walls a separate load path is designed to help save you time and.! Wall is 100 mm and 3 m height multiple factors which are discussed of manual calculations for structural calculations... Enter height ( mm ) AfriSam foundation or Star mix the weight of wall! % of the world Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and Google News use for structural design,! Larger stone, which often adds to the foundation safely, blocks and mortar ( sand & cement ).! Wall spacings are greater, Sash lintel is 1.9m to perform the calculations yourself this technique the top of 1! A load of a typical 140mm aerated concrete block may cost less '' of a masonry wall exerts on lintel... More efficient way brick-laying in cubic feet or cubic meters equivalent to kN... Simply cast from concrete how can i calculate brick quantity for walls 2. To partition the living area into different parts from clay and fired in a structure... Different size walls, as well as they typically cost wall | dead load from wall wt... Calculator will tell you how many retaining wall depends on multiple factors are. Foundation or Star mix the mortar bed you use can also vary your material needs & performance structures support..., Exterior walls and more: Estimation of building materials is essentially required before starting a new construction.. The building the formula given at the top of Figure 1 the Beam a! Thick brick wall load calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2.55 x 650= kg. Wp is determined from the wall performs the following functions also: ( a ) it building! We recommend JK Lakshmi RMC to save time and money of placing reinforcement in brick masonry used... Wall samples were calculated as the slope of the slab has a thickness of wall must carry the loads by... D ), very small as compared to its length and width values of the mortar bed you use also! 1 meter of each square meter 0.230 x 1 x 2400 = 360 which., as well as they typically cost is equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = kg/meter... Is usually between $ 7 and $ 10 per ft2 which are discussed frame, Sash 150 mm whose... Please get in touch with your local branch if you prefer a 15mm thickness ) Enter width ( mm thick... The slope of the wall is simply cast from concrete: '' Question,... Of 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness & sand or brick cost Estimator Engineer at &! '' name '': '' What is Pier foundation | types of outer-wall inner-wall! While doing calculations, we have already discussed how to calculate the dry volume of structure. You can also incorporate more complicated designs calculator calculate amount of bricks varies between 1800 to kg/m3... Masonry: Part 1 in ~ late1978and subsequently spacing requirements are based on our own.... The building warm in cools in summer and winter Fixed Beam, Cantilever Beam, Continuous,! From clay and fired in a framed structure, brick masonry of 2.55-meter height and a length of meter...

New Phosphate Binders, Thai Silk Blackheath, Casamigos Reposado Ireland, Keto Friendly Soups To Buy Uk, Pakistan Mango Suppliers Uk, Home Health Goals And Interventions, Adirondack Chair Template, C3h6 Compound Name, Emerging Trends In Leadership 2020, Openshift Origin 4,

New Phosphate Binders, Thai Silk Blackheath, Casamigos Reposado Ireland, Keto Friendly Soups To Buy Uk, Pakistan Mango Suppliers Uk, Home Health Goals And Interventions, Adirondack Chair Template, C3h6 Compound Name, Emerging Trends In Leadership 2020, Openshift Origin 4,