Ch.) Within the context of the Cold War, the legacy of the South African Border War exemplified the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. After World War II, the tension between communist and democratic forms of government strained relations between the Soviet Union and the United States and provided the ideological underpinnings of the Cold War. 1961 ... South Africa’s Prime Minister JB Vorster authorises Operation Savannah, eventually resulting in the infiltration of several SADF forces and a clash between the South African government and Cuban forces. After the Second World War, there was a struggle between two world powers, the US and Russia. At this point, both sides were still backed by the Soviet Union and were using Soviet funds and arms to fight one another. The Ogaden War was an eight-month long military engagement between the Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia (Derg) and the Somali Democratic Republic, supported by the Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF). Third, the CIA feared that the Soviet Union was attempting to establish a military base in Angola. The outcome had Israel winning the war. Ethiopia, to the west of Somalia, had been one of the only African nations which was never colonized (it was occupied by fascist Italy from 1936-1941). The most effective way that the SADF maintained control over South West Africa was to push SWAPO forces into Angola and then continue the attack there. Both sides claimed victory following the seven-month skirmish. The Haud, a valuable grazing area for nomadic communities, was located in the Ogaden. Sectarian violence and lawlessness had broken out during the first several weeks of independence, mainly between several tribal groups vying for power. After being denied Western aid to control rebel factions in the south of Congo, Lumumba turned to the Soviets, who provided him with weapons and military advisors. After declaring himself president, Barre established the Supreme Revolutionary Council, a communist junta which dissolved the Supreme Court and suspended the Constitution. Most learners will understand that a ‘war’ involves conflict between warring parties; that a ‘war’ involves the use of weaponry amongst ‘warring parties’ BUT what is meant by a ‘COLD’ war as opposed to a ‘HOT’ one? Arguably more important, however, was the ability to have friendly governments that could be used as allies to fight conventional wars or provide bases for the placement of nuclear warheads in the case of nuclear warfare. Such a concern was based on historical evidence. Ogden War May 1977 - June 1977 When Maxamed Siyaad Barre, president of Somalia, took control over a large section of Ogden, Ethiopia, North Korea, Cuba, and the Soviet Union supported Mengistu Haile Mariam, head of state in Ethiopia. The conflict was fought along ethnic and political lines but included foreign intervention from the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and South Africa. The Apartheid government of South Africa, hoping to limit leftist activity in the region, approved the use of ground forces bolster the retreating FNLA and UNITA forces and prevent a possible rout. The Soviet War in Afghanistan: Causes & Timeline Next Lesson . The Cold War was heavily felt was in South Africa. Cold War and after: 1945-2000 The emerging African nations both benefit from and are harmed by the global competition between the USA and the USSR in the decades after World War II. The reason lay in the threat of new and even deadlier weapons of nuclear technology that prevented outright open warfare. The Congo, Decolonization, and the Cold War, 1960–1965. [1] Lumumba was then arrested and transported to Katanga, where he and several other of his supporters were summarily executed. Tensions between the MPLA and UNITA, and thus the Soviet Union and United States, respectively, increased throughout the mid-1980s. Cold War Timeline. Botha believed that South West Africa served as an effective buffer state between communism and South Africa. Quickly, two distinct blocs emerged. The Cold War was 'fought' in the aftermath of World War Two, from the collapse of the wartime alliance between the Anglo-American led Allies and the USSR to the collapse of the USSR itself, with the most common dates for these identified as 1945 to 1991. Formally broken off from Belgium, the Republic of the Congo-Léopoldville was tasked with forming a government and quelling regional and tribal strife from within. The delineation between Angola and South West Africa became almost nonexistent, and numerous SWAPO military camps were established within Angolan boundaries. Between 1987 and 1988, the Angolan Civil War culminated in the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale. Angola became independent following the Carnation Revolution in 1974, and the country plunged into civil war. These proxy wars on the African continent represent just a small sample of the global scale of the Cold War. Timeline (Source: “Timeline of events in the Cold War” [ Accesssed: 23 January 2015]), http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/what%20was%20the%20cold%20war.htm, http://www.amazon.com/The-Cold-War-New-History/dp/0143038273. M. The Cold War spread outside Europe to every region of the world, and drew to a close by end of the late 1980s / early 1990s. Scroll down to learn more. The Cold War was a geopolitical chess match between the United States, the Soviet Union, and both parties’ allies in which the major power players sought to project their respective ideologies across the globe in the wake of colonialism’s collapse following World War Two. Under Belgian rule, life for the Congolese was miserable, with millions dying of starvation, disease, and poor working conditions. Nation-states across the world, whatever explicit or not, empathised with either Russia or the USA. Because of these conflicts, numerous nations in central, eastern and southern Africa were destabilized economically, politically, and socially. However, the war dragged on well into the 1980s, and with every escalation by the SADF, the Cubans and Soviets doubled down on protecting SWAPO and MPLA territory. By the mid-1970s, the limited bush skirmishes had turned into full-scale military operations aided by Western and Eastern Bloc allies. United States intervention in Angola was heavily shaped by several factors. It was first privately owned by King Leopold II (right) and referred to as the Congo Free Statebefore being renamed the Belgian Congo after it was taken over by the Belgian government. It stipulated that Cuban forces would withdraw from the African continent, SADF forces would leave South West Africa, and open elections would be held in South West Africa. Among them were Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. The following article was initially published in 1997. ... May 2: South African Government and African National Congress hold first talks in Cape Town on ending white minority rule. By 1976, the FLNA had collapsed as the United States switched to supporting the UNITA forces. The ideological war between communism and capitalism claimed millions of lives and cost untold amounts of money. The Ogaden War ended in a rout and by March of 1978 all Somali forces had withdrawn from Ethiopian territory. The United Nations 1. Partitioning of the Horn of Africa stranded many ethnic Somalis in the neighboring countries of Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, and Eritrea. CHAPTER 33 - The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945–1975 I. After World War I, Germany was forced to surrender its colonial possessions, and South West Africa became an administrative mandate under the trusteeship of South Africa. By 1970, SWAPO-backed militias had emerged throughout a majority of the country and began a rigorous guerilla campaign, centered around mine warfare. It is under the dominion of the British Empire. Ultimately, due to economic limitations and growing casualties, the MPLA and UNITA leadership began peace talks. Both nations found it critical to expand their spheres of influence, largely by promoting leadership in the “Third World” that would be sympathetic to their causes. Due to this, the Border War inextricably became linked to the Angolan Civil War; oftentimes the two blended into one conflated battle based on Cold War ideological lines. Cold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. The Soviets had backed a 1977 coup led by former Interior Minister of Angola Nito Alves. That war has never ended The Cold War in Nigeria: The Case of Plateau State. Although Alves was eventually executed by Neto following the Nitista (a name given to the followers of Alves) coup, American officials knew that the Angolan War served as a real threat to its interests throughout all of Africa. This belief was augmented by political and economic turmoil in the surrounding nations of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Zaire, and South West Africa. Less than ten years after being declared a sovereign nation, Somalia underwent a military coup which saw General Mohamed Siad Barre ascend to power. 1892-94 - Eastern Congo wrested from the control of East African Arab and Swahili-speaking traders. Angolan oil could potentially benefit both nations economically and could also help cut costs of military operations in the continent should they arise in the future. The Ogaden War was important in the context of the Cold War not because there was direct conflict between Soviet and American backed forces. Why was it called the ‘Cold War’? End of empire 1973-74 - An estimated 200,000 people die in Wallo province as a result of famine. The Cold War was a period of increased hostility between two blocs of power, the USA and its allies on the one hand; and the USSR and China, on the other. The MPLA was supported directly by Cuban soldiers and indirectly by Soviet advisors and weaponry, while the UNITA was backed directly by the South African Defense Force and indirectly by American money and weapons. By using both diplomatic and military power, the United States and the Soviet Union attempted to carve out areas that could be utilized as staging grounds against one another. Rather, both nations were worried that the rich uranium mines in the southern areas of the Congo would come under the other’s control. The goal of Soviet aid was to eventually establish a naval base at Berbera; doing so would enable the Soviets direct access to the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, in turn making sea trade with the oil-rich Arab nations to the north easier. [3] Cyrus Vance, Hard Choices: Critical Years in America’s Foreign Policy (New York: Simon &, [4] Jerel Rosati, The Rise and Fall of America’s First Cold-War Foreign Policy. Second, offshore of the northern half of the country lay enormous oil fields. US President Nixon extends the war to Cambodia. Resistance began in the 1950s and culminated with a declaration of independence in June of 1960. National Senior Certificate Grd 12, History Paper 2, November 2014. He then removed all Soviet diplomats in the country in an effort to draw in Western support. All rights reserved. The Soviet Union, too, saw opportunity in Lumumba, and the ground was set for a proxy war that would last five years. If Angola fell, it was feared that the Soviets, Cuba, and to a lesser extent China would feel bold enough to inspire revolution that was Pan-African and communist in nature, rather than nation-based and capitalist-oriented, throughout the African continent. In most cases, the SADF was able to overwhelm the combined forces of SWAPO, MPLA, and Cuban militants supported by Soviet advisors because of the superior weaponry provided to the SADF by the United States. Most of the twenty-eight independent states of Africa have tended to align themselves with one of two blocs—African blocs, to be sure, but oriented in many important ways either to East or West. The main concern for both nations was not the wellbeing of the Congolese people or even financial gain. 1945. Congo had been a Belgian territory since the 1880s. Neither side was willing to engage each other directly with military force, but both were willing to send aid, weapons, and advisors to support their respective regimes. Some historians argue that it was the formulation and implementation of common policy documents by the USSR for its East European territories that heralded the beginning of different spheres of influence. The MPLA gained the upper hand in Angola, offering a strategic ally to the similarly communist-leaning SWAPO. However, the South African influence on South West Africa, especially under the apartheid government, continued to grow and alienate the people of South West Africa. The Cold War was characterised by conflict through proxy wars, the manipulation of more vulnerable states through extensive military and financial aid, espionage, propaganda, rivalry over technology, space and nuclear races, and sport. Un… 1575 - … The American public, and some members of Congress and Carter’s own cabinet, disagreed with the actions (or lack thereof) he took to help the Somalis. Tour some of the key locations of the Manhattan Project with an audio guide. Several high profile missions, including Operation Savannah, Operation Protea, and Operation Askari, did just that. By the early 1990s, both the US and Soviet Union saw diminishing support at home - especially in the Soviet Union, where the economy was falling apart at the seams - for costly proxy struggles overseas. A final break in detente resulted, and the United States and Soviet Union entered a second phase of the Cold War. Most of the fighting took place near the Angola-Namibia border. The United States was only able to offer limited help to South Africa, as full-fledged sponsorship for the racist regime would have been unpopular among democratic societies around the world. [2] Anon, “Somalia Says Two Towns Hit by Ethiopian Planes” Washington Post, December 29, 1977b. The government developed an increasingly nationalist and communist tone, suppressing opposition parties and jailing their leaders. First, much like in Vietnam, American leaders, such as Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, believed that a Communist takeover in Angola would lead to a “domino effect” in the rest of southern Africa. South West Africa had originally been a colony of the German Empire. However, the Soviet Union decided to shift primary support from Somalia to Ethiopia. The European and American powers who promise to see progress in Africa should thus accept the desires of African states to remain neutral. Doing so would provide Moscow with crucial uranium deposits, while depriving the United States of their most prosperous overseas mines. The Soviets amped up their economic aid, while the Cubans initially committed about 15,000 ground troops to the region, a number that rose to nearly 36,000 within the year. The Cold War was characteristics by different ideologies being imposed or sold to other countries. Also see: National Senior Certificate Grd 12, History Paper 1, November 2014 and Cold War Timeline Timeline Description: The Cold War was a time of conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Congo Crisis was a period of social, political, and military upheaval in the newly formed Republic of the Congo-Léopoldville (present day Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire). This caused the Katanga province, under the leadership of Moïse Tshombe, to secede. Barre was quoted as saying the United States needed to “fulfill its moral responsibility to Somalia” with more than just words. After World War II Western leaders perceived the Soviet Union as the center of a world revolutionary movement, while Soviet leaders felt themselves surrounded by the western countries and their North Atlantic Treaty Organization (founded 1949). In the context of the Cold War, the Ogaden conflict appeared a victory for the communist cause. The British win this war and take over Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The reason lies in the proliferation (increase) of nuclear weapons so that if these weapons were ever used, the destruction that would follow would result in a global destruction. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom. 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