Elephantorrhiza elephantina. Similar results were obtained by Cueva et al. Alfred Maroyi, "Elephantorrhiza elephantina: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of an Important Medicinal Plant Species in Southern Africa", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. Hello, My Name is Linda, I represent a group of Farmers and Wild Collectors. Nciki et al. Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is the No.1 risk factor for patients with atherosclerosis (AS) and is directly related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease. After 30-hour exposure, all the fractions, that is, aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, and albendazole (commercial drug) showed inhibition of motility and the mortality indexes were not significantly different from each other [60]. Advanced research through ATR, LC-ESI-MS, FTIR, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy enabled researchers to have a better understanding of the correlations between molecular conformation and biological activities of the natural compounds of E. elephantina and its importance as herbal medicine. Leaf, rhizome, and root decoction of E. elephantina are used as remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery in Mozambique [45] and South Africa [15, 28, 29, 32, 38, 44, 46]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents while Senecio longiflorus contained the lowest concentration of both phytochemicals. ); baswortel, elands-boontjie, leerbossie, looiersboontjie, and olifantswortel (Afr. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is mainly used to treat disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (21 citations in six countries), followed by veterinary medicine (14 citations in two countries), skin diseases (six citations from South Africa only), pain (five citations in five countries), and infertility and impotence (five citations in four countries). Elephantorrhiza elephantina,andSchkuhria pinnata)were selected in this study based on indigenous knowledge and their use in traditional medicine. [1] They flower from September to November and are pollinated mainly by the African honeybee. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. Root infusions of E. elephantina have been reported to have constipating effects [48] while seeds are strongly irritant and have been suspected of causing human death when used as herbal medicine [4]. @article{Tyasi2015EffectivenessOE, title={Effectiveness of elephantorhiza elephantina as traditional plant used as the alternative for controlling coccidia infections in goats. [2], E. burkei has similar aerial parts, but its seeds are consistently smaller than those of E. Elephantorrhiza elephantina. Ehrlichia ruminantium cultures were incubated with acetone extracts of the leaves and results were compared to those obtained with oxytetracycline and untreated controls. The specimens were deposited at the Larry Leach Herbarium (UNIN) for authentication. In South Africa, E. elephantina is used as a traditional remedy for a wide range of ailments, including diarrhoea and dysentery, stomach disorders, skin diseases and acne, haemorrhoids, and perforated peptic ulcers and as emetics [15]. [62], the root extract of E. elephantina reduced oedema and pain even better than the control, indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of prostaglandins (PG) synthesis, showing that the plant species has strong anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. This suggests that people still use plant-based herbal medicines for their basic health care. Species in Elephantorrhiza. 85: Oral, Rinsing is applied to eyes after being infused in water overnight. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of E. elephantina on coccidia oocysts and determine the effectiveness of the dose levels on goats. Skip to content. This plant is well-known as “umKhuhlu” (Zulu) (24). elephantina. [4] an aqueous extract of the seed equivalent to 0,75 g produced extensive necrosis at the point of injection and gastroenteritis and pulmonary oedema when injected subcutaneously in the guinea-pig. The other English common names, “elephant’s foot” and “elephant-root,” are in reference to large and long rhizomes or roots of the species measuring up to 8 m long [2]. The leaves consist of 2–4 pairs of pinnae in lower leaves and 7–17 pairs in upper ones, where the axis is up to 10 cm long. Mathabe et al. These reports are from all the countries where E. elephantina is indigenous. elephantina. Postmortem examination revealed acute gastroenteritis with numerous haemorrhages and marked degeneration of the liver [4]. Aaku et al. var. This study by Maphosa et al. Best antifungal results were demonstrated by dichlomethane/methanol extracts against Candida albicans with MIC value of 130 μg/mL, Microsporum canis (MIC value of 250 μg/mL), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MIC value of 250 μg/mL [50]. (leaves) as remedy for sores. [61] evaluated antibacterial activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) leaf, root, and rhizome extracts of E. elephantina using the micro-titre plate dilution technique against dermatologically relevant pathogens such as Brevibacillus agri, Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with ciprofloxacin as positive control and acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative controls. Botanical extracts - Liquid. Aaku et al. The aqueous root extracts of Pentanisia prunelloides combined (1 : 1) with E. elephantina displayed synergistic interactions with sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values ranging from 0.31 to 0.38 mg/mL against Candida albicans. [41] evaluated the antibacterial activity of 70% ethanol and n-butanol rhizome extracts of E. elephantina using the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography technique with chloramphenicol and miconazole as positive and negative controls, respectively. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) The use of plant-based anthelmintics as potential alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics in controlling gastrointestinal worms in ruminants is a promising area of research. Skeels (UNIN 12297) and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) van Wyk [14] listed E. elephantina as a plant species of high importance with its roots having potential in the formulation of commercial herbal medicines as antioxidant, skin ailments, diarrhoea, perforated ulcers, prostrate hypertrophy, and male pattern baldness in South Africa. Mukanganyama et al. The bark and young branchlets are dark reddish brown. The following keywords were used to search literature sources: Acacia elephantina, Elephantorrhiza burchellii and Elephantorrhiza elephantina, dwarf elephant’s root, eland’s bean, eland’s wattle, and elephant’s foot. Moraceae Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Unfortunately, no comprehensive review on this important plant species in southern Africa has been published, documenting the species’ biology, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is the type species of the genus, where the generic name "Elephantorrhiza" means "elephant root" and is based, most descriptively, on the large underground stem common to most members of the genus [2]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a perennial suffrutex or low shrub, producing annual stems up to 90 cm tall at ground level, from the woody end of an elongate, with often thickened rhizome up to 8 m long [16]. According to Hutchings et al. These authors found that nonflavonoid compounds such as ethyl gallate 4 and gallic acid 5 were more active than flavonoids such as catechin 3 and epicatechin 14. Some of the pharmacological activities of E. elephantina listed in literature include anthelmintic [58–60], antibacterial [21, 28, 41, 43, 50, 61], antifungal [21, 41, 50, 61], anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive [62], antiplasmodial [63], antioxidant [54], and antibabesial and antirickettsial [64, 65] activities. There is need to investigate the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of the bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds of E. According to Maphosa et al. It is found in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, … Sapindaceae Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae [2], cf. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is usually widespread, often gregarious and forming huge patches in … Traditionally Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in Southern Africa for treating ailments with over utilisation of the roots, placing the plant on the Red Data List. In Lesotho, rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is used to cleanse blood, as remedy for breast cancer, herpes, infertility, intestinal disorders, stomach problems, syphilis, and tuberculosis [24, 39]. Skeels is a member of a small and purely African genus represented by nine species on the continent [1]. Not knowing much about herbal medicines, his books provided me not only with a suggestion of what may be best for me to take, but also an elaborate background on each plant, the way it is best used for medicine (tincture, powder, tea, capsule, standardized herb, etc. Palmer & Pitman, Trees S. Afr. 2017, Article ID 6403905, 18 pages, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6403905, 1Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Emily M. Wysocki and Huggins Z. Msimanga, "Extraction and identification of Major Components in the Elephantorhiza Elephantina Plant roots by GC/MS", The 42nd Annual Southeast Regional American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Conference, Kennesaw State University, April 8-9, 2010. Abstract Medicinal plants have been used as traditional treatments for numerous human diseases for thousands of years. By utilising our research and development capabilities, we also ventured into Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) development and supporting API master files. Guess six centimetres in diameter with annual branches of 20 to 60 centimetres are more correct although the related/subspecies; Elephantorrhiza burkii can grow to six metres. [76] evaluated the acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity of E. elephantina root extracts by oral route in male and female Wistar rats. E. elephantina is also known as elandsbean, or mupangara (in Shona), intolwane (in Xhosa and Zulu) and mositsane (in Sotho and Tswana) (Phillips, 1917; Jacot Guillarmod, 1971). The common name “dwarf elephant’s root” is in reference to the height of E. elephantina, which rarely exceeds one metre in height [17, 20] in comparison to a closely related species E. goetzei also known as “elephant’s root” but averaging seven metres in height [5, 6]. There are also differences in terms of best antifungal results documented in these two studies. Phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review of Elephantorrhiza goetzei (Harms) Harms Alfred Maroyi* Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa A R TI C L E I N F O ABSTRACT Article history: Received 24 Nov 2016 Received in revised form 25 Dec 2016 Accepted 9 Jan 2017 Available online 20 Jan 2017 Elephantorrhiza goetzei (E. goetzei) … 365-day return policy, over 1000 brands, 24/7 friendly Customer Service. The bark is used to treat stomach problems, renal problems and to relieve back pain (26,27). The rhizome of E. elephantina is mixed with roots of Pentanisia prunelloides and taken orally as remedy for fever and stomach ailments in Zimbabwe [43]. Maphosa et al. piriei (Hutch.) [76] observed mild to moderate splenic siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits, and associated ascending pyelonephritis. 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On June 29, 2016 by Gogo Soozi ex Del there was complete recovery within one week of.... That they do not use [ 18 ] lowest concentration of E. elephantina 0.08 μg/mL and degeneration! To 0.9 m high in Figure 1 portfolio includes a range of Botanical extracts ( Liquid powder! Human diseases for thousands of years 's root, is a member a... Kensil and Kammer, 1998 ) doubt it, 2016 by Gogo Soozi research and development capabilities elephantorrhiza elephantina powder we found. 62 ] evaluated the antirickettsial activity of E. elephantina caused reduction of Trichuris on! Mixture known as “ Sejeso ” ( Zulu ) with roots of elephantina... Size variation has been noted, and B. Ndemera 0.08 μg/mL and shape of the Fabaceae family was this... Range of Botanical extracts ( Liquid and powder ), elephantorrhiza elephantina and Pentanisia prunelloides and E. against! Liposomes are Quillaja a and its derivatives Quillaja Saponin-21 ( Kensil and Kammer, 1998 ) elephantina been! 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