The cross-section of a cable wire should be selected to match the current consumption of the connected loads. For a 10cm lead you aren’t going to need 2.5mm2 or 10 gauge wire. This will depend on the type of conduit and wire that you’re using. Wire gauge is a measurement of wire diameter. Along with different sizes of wire, there are many types of wire used around the home. The values simply have to be entered in the wire size calculator. Determining how many smaller wires are required to replace a single larger wire. The quick answer to the questionis, “more than you think.” Of course there’s no one answer which will peg the amount of wire needed to electrify a house. Related questions – How many amps can 1.5 mm cable take? If there is more than one cable, the ampacity must also be adjusted. Therefore, the next largest line is always used. 1/0 ("one-aught") is the common name for a 0-gauge wire; 2/0 ("two-aught") for a 00-gauge wire. Substitute -1, -2, and -3 for the gauge in the formula above instead of the AWG value. With the enlargement of the cross-section, this heat is counteracted. Wire gauges run contrary to what you might think; the lower the number the thicker the wire. Simply put, we could call this wasted heat a “loss” because it is not used for its intended purpose. We need to do something to increase the voltage at the camera. Something like 0.5mm2 or 24 gauge (or even less) will work just fine. For help choosing the proper fence style, check … 18-gauge wire is approximately the width of the pin. A larger AWG number indicates a smaller cable. Alternatively, the current can be calculated using the known power and voltage. This reduces the risk of excessive heating and prevents fires.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'electronicbase_net-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',108,'0','0'])); Due to chemical processes in the material, the electrical resistance of a cable increases with the temperature. The thickness of wire is measured in “gauge” (often abbreviated as AWG, which stands American Wire Gauge”), and the lower the gauge, the thicker the wire. the 1 last update 2020/10/22 HardwareHardware. Electrical Wire Size Calculator. How do you tell if your old wiring is 12-gauge or 14-gauge? Let’s go back to the table and see if we can adjust the wire gauge. Both are in regular use, though in North America, AWG is more common. Common sizes include 14-, 12-, 10-, 8-, 6-, and 2-gauge wire. The NEC book will tell you the gauge. Keep in mind the results do not include the voltage drop of the LED strip itself and only includes the voltage drop in the wires. Today, we are here with another comprehensive Copper and aluminum wire size calculator As we have discussed in detail the topic of “How to calculate the proper wire size for Electrical Wiring. You may also want to see our article on what kind of extension cord do I need for even more info. I f you’re adding an outlet, you need to use wire the same gauge as the existing wiring. Knowing which type of wire to use is just as important as determining the proper gauge, amperage limit, and the maximum wattage load limit of the electrical wire you choose. In these cases, you need to wrap the end of the wire with electrical tape to identify it as such. Here’s a simple visual. How to Get Rid of Cockroaches Naturally at Home. Three-phase AC (three-phase current) line cross-section formula: $$ A = \frac{\sqrt{3} \cdot l \cdot I \cdot \cos \varphi}{\gamma \cdot U_a} $$eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'electronicbase_net-banner-1','ezslot_20',110,'0','0'])); The formulas for the cable cross-section look quite complicated at first glance. When switched on, a very strong current is generated, which levels off due to the heating within a fraction of a second. Use 6 gauge for up to 30 amperes, and 2 gauge wire for current up to 50 amperes. SWG = Standard or Sterling Wire Gauge, a British wire measurement system. Wire is sized by the American Wire Gauge (AWG) system. In principle, all currents could be added together and the length of the common line section is measured. Common wires for landscape lighting are 10-, 12-, 14-, or 16-gauge wires. Our calculator yields results that are within code in most locations however we advise you to check your local electrical code. The linking factor of three-phase current \(\mathbf{\sqrt{3}}\) is a fixed value. Insert the end of the wire through one of the holes in the wire trimmer. how many amperes can we get? Wire gauges may be broadly divided into two groups, the empirical and the geometric. The line for a bell has a smaller cross section than the connecting line of a lathe. Electrical voltage is the separation of electric charges and the current flow due to the directed movement of electrons between two points. Conductor - Choose the material used as a conductor in the wire. Personally I use a spool of 0.75mm2 or 20 gauge wire for my short leads which don’t exceed 1 meter. Step 1 Find the Voltage Drop Index (VDI) for the circuit by using the following formula: VDI = amps x … Here, a simultaneity factor is generally expected. How To Determine Wire Gauge Needed For Wiring Instructional Wood Videos 02 Sep 2020 ( Watch Anywwere) | How To Determine Wire Gauge Needed For Wiring Get Access To Plans! Most home speakers don't come with wire. Step 1: Open your NEC book to chapter 9 You need to choose your fill table. It arises from the interaction of the three phases, because the current does not just flow back and forth here. This effect is easy to observe with older light bulbs: just a few seconds after switching on, the glass is too hot to touch. In the sense of a reserve, the next size should be used here. The correct cable cross-section is important for safe operation of electrical appliances and machines. Wire is used to carry electrical current, how much current it can carry is directly related to the length and the thickness or gauge of the wire. What kind of connectors are best? Insulation - Select the thermal rating of the insulation on the wire. The size of the wire dictates how much current can safely pass through the wire. We’ll go into all the relevant details and what it … You want the wire to be able to move … The routing mode of the cable limits the current depending on the materials surrounding the cable. Copper gauge amp … Across from the wire gauge, you’ll find the maximum number of wires that can be placed inside your conduit diameter Choose a number equal to or greater than the number of wires you’ll put inside the conduit; Step 2: Calculate the wire cross-sectional area You know the number of wires you need and the insulation type. The correct cable cross-section is important for safe operation of electrical appliances and machines. How to determine the correct Wire Gauge: 1. How To Determine Wire Gauge Needed For Wiring Expert Advice On Woodworking 02 Sep 2020 (☑ Step-By-Step Blueprints) | How To Determine Wire Gauge Needed For Wiring Get Access To Plans! This is why it is very important to be aware of the wire gauge (thickness) used in the wiring for LED strips. The Wire Size Calculators' answers are based on copper wire using the standard AWG (American Wire Gauge) sizes. Start by stripping the insulation with a wire stripping tool. The gauge of a wire determines how much current can flow through the wire. The higher the amperage the bigger the wire. Your email address will not be published. For example, if you want to create a 12-gauge wire from 20 gauge wires, first select 20 gauge from the Wire Gauge list, then select 12 gauge from the Effective Gauge list; the required number of wires is 6. The more electrons are set into motion, the stronger the current becomes, and the more heat is generated. 2. To determine how big the wire needs to be, you have to figure the approximate length of the wire from the amp installation point to the battery (all amps must be wired directly to the battery). Because just looking at wires is hard if not impossible to distinguish between the different sizes and types, wires have something special on its coating to tell us what the wiring really is. This should be used as a reference only. Every resistance means heat generation and this heat is converted electrical energy. The 'Max Length' indicates the maximum length of wire of that gauge that can be use at the given values you entered. What gauge (thickness) do you need? We want to explain how these factors affect the cross section and how to calculate a wire cross section. You want the … well i'm making a tesla coil and i have alot of wire laying around but i don't know what gauge it is. You also want to look for jumper cables that are about 20 feet long, just in case you can't park your car close enough to another vehicle. The American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) publishes charts with valuable detail to help experienced boatbuilders and installers determine what wire size they need. 14-gauge speaker wire, for example, is thicker than 18-gauge and offers less than half the resistance to audio signals. On the one hand, there are the electrical data of the connected machine, and structural conditions such as cable length and installation type on the other. This will ensure that no one confuses it use and ties it into the neutral wires. Common conductors are copper and aluminum. The electrical wire size is crucial in thi… So now I have to figure out not one, but TWO systems? You want the cord to move in and out of it with ease. First – find the exponent in the equation by subtracting the wire gauge from 36 then dividing by 39. Residential circuits in North America have a voltage of either 120 or 240 V. You need to differentiate these when estimating wire needs, because they require different wire gauges. If the wire gauge is OK to use it will have a 'Check Mark' on the same line. Although these charts are an excellent resource, they are a bit intimidating. On this site you will find helpful online calculators for different topics in electronics. Which is the Best Amazon Echo or Google Home? !how to How To Determine Wire Gauge Needed For Wiring for Originally designated HK-1 for the first aircraft built by Hughes-Kaiser, the giant was re-designated H-4 when Henry Kaiser withdrew … Electrical voltage is the separation of electric charges and the current flow due to the directed movement of electrons between two points. The gauge also determines the resistance of the wire and its weight per unit of length. A larger cross section has only benefits electrically speaking. You not only can strip wires of a specific size but can also determine the gauge size of the wire. This electron movement always causes heat. Second, multiply the circular mils by the number of strands in the cable. The only disadvantages are the slightly higher cost and a larger footprint. Calculate the total length of wire from the power supply to the LED strip. Each line has a resistance, even if it is very small. Use 12 gauge for currents that are between 5 amperes and 11.5 amperes. If we use 12 gauge wire, the resistance drop is 1.19 ohms (2.37 / 2). You are confused when winding a transformer, is which gauge of the copper wire I used for the winding transformer. If we were to operate the CHP via the line of the lathe or bell, cable fire would occur due to the excessive heat.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'electronicbase_net-medrectangle-3','ezslot_21',107,'0','0'])); The cross section refers to the area of each wire of a cable and its size depends on several factors. This determines the amount of electric current a wire can safely carry, as well as its electrical resistance and weight. This maximum voltage drop is generally set at 3% in Germany, unless the installation has special provisions. Choose the copper size according to the specific amper you need. You see, the insulation covering the wire tells the story about the wire itself. For DC and single-phase AC, the length times two is calculated because the current over + and – or L and N flows back and forth. They are the AWG (American Wire Gauge) system, and the SWG (Standard Wire Gauge) system. The American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) publishes charts with valuable detail to help experienced boatbuilders and installers determine what wire size they need. How many feet of wire will you need to buy? Steps to Find the Diameter. In general, the following applies: As the cable cross-section increases, the resistance decreases. Also note that 00, 000, and 0000 gauges (generally refered to as 2/0, 3/0 and 4/0 are progressively larger in size and are represented in the Wire Size Calculator as -1, -2, and -3. The length of the line \(\mathbf{l}\) is measured exactly along the course of the line and given in meters. We can either increase the source voltage or change the wire gauge so it doesn’t cause so much voltage drop. Steps to Find the Diameter. What To Do When You Spill Coffee On Your Laptop? Cable loads may vary at different temperatures. The gauge of wire you need for your 220 volt circuit depends on how many amperes will be running through the wire. Privacy Policy. This determines the amount of electric current a wire can safely carry, as well as its electrical resistance and weight. I have a 12 t.p.i. To gauge wire, you’ll first need to strip the wire, then use a wire gauging tool to measure its diameter. Installation - Choose the installation method for the circuit. I f you’re adding an outlet, you need to use wire the same gauge as the existing wiring. The gap around the insulation indicates that you are using a hole that is too large. This is because the size, or gauge, of the wire determines the amount of current it can safely conduct. In addition, we provide a wire size calculator. Naturally, thicker wire will cost more than thinner wire. buttress thread plug gauge with a go p.d. Low voltage landscape wiring or electrical cable comes in several numerical gauges or sizes. Twelve gauge is about the thickness of a nickel, and 14-gauge is about the thickness of a dime. wiring supplying wall power points.) There are factors depending on the number of heaped cables by which the current carrying capacity is lowered.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'electronicbase_net-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_16',113,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'electronicbase_net-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_17',113,'0','1'])); It is more complicated to calculate a conductor cross section when multiple loads are connected. There are many factors to consider before choosing the proper gauge. The formula to find the diameter of the wire in millimeters is: diameter (mm) = .127 × 92 (36 – AWG) ÷ 39. This will rarely fit exactly on a commercial cross-section. For context, 1.5mm² is the normal size for domestic 10 A extension cables. When we install a car audio system with an amplifier we need to properly choose the right wire size gauge for our power and ground wires. There are well established methods for calculating the required size of cables, based on: I²R Heating - acceptable conductor temperature before the insulation material is damaged.. For regular PVC-insulated cables, you may assume this as 75°C (V-75.) There is no clear way to determine it. Use an 18 gauge wire for current of 5 amperes or less. To calculate ground wire size, use the Ground Wire Size Calculator. Stranded wire gauges should be measured by calculating the equivalent cross sectional copper area. How to Clean Your Computer Keyboard Safely? All you got to do is watch this short video then you'll know. We'll help you choose the right kind of speaker wire for your home audio system. The wire must enable the flow of current with the least possible resistance. Use our Cable Size Calculator to find out exactly what you need. How to Block a Phone Number on an iphone? And . of 4.23''; can anyone tell me how to determine the thread wire size needed to measure this? Attempting to run too much current through too small of a cable can cause permanent damage to wiring. The largest wire you're likely to find in an automotive application is 00-gauge, which is used in big trucks for carrying current from multiple batteries. An online wire size calculator helps you with dimensioning following your data input. In most cases, however, this line would be significantly oversized, because not all consumers usually receive electricity at the same time. For our example, we are going with 16 feet. The n gauge wire diameter d n in millimeters (mm) is equal to 0.127mm times 92 raised to the power of 36 minus gauge number n, divided by 39: Place 2 inches of wire through the tool, clamp it down, and pull off the insulation to expose the wires inside. You can not only strip wires of a certain size but can also determine the perimeter of the wire. Shop 26 gauge jewelry wire. A large cross-section can be calculated based on this. The n gauge wire diameter d n in inches (in) is equal to 0.005in times 92 raised to the power of 36 minus gauge number n, divided by 39:. We recommend 12-gauge or 10-gauge wire for long distances. What size is that wiring, anyway? How to Fix a Water Damaged Phone After a Month? Cable is measured in American Wire Gauge (AWG). You can not only strip wires of a certain size but can also determine the perimeter of the wire. 24 gauge wire is a very versatile wire and is one I buy and use in great quantities. Choosing the right wire size for your DC electrical project is important, since a wire that is too small can overheat and possibly start a fire. Types of installation A1 to E exist. First – find the exponent in the equation by subtracting the wire gauge from 36 then dividing by 39. DC calculation of line cross section:eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'electronicbase_net-box-4','ezslot_2',109,'0','0'])); $$ A = \frac{2 \cdot l \cdot I}{\gamma \cdot U_a} $$, $$ A = \frac{2 \cdot l \cdot I \cdot \cos \varphi}{\gamma \cdot U_a} $$. This is 1.0 and can be omitted in the calculation. Length: It’s more work for electrons to pass through long wires, so resistance increases in direct proportion to the length of a cable. The higher the number, the smaller the wire. Examine the variables in calculating the wire size. Wire Gauge and Voltage Drop Calculator Use the following calculator to determine if the wire gauge is sufficient for your LED strip wires. 24 gauge. Wire Size Calculator – How to calculate wire gauge, General information about the cable wire size, Relationship between temperature and resistance, Wire size calculation – Selection of the appropriate line, Calculating wire size for several consumers, RC Filter Calculator – How RC filters work, Smoothing and Filter Capacitor Calculator, LC Filter Calculator – How LC filters work. American Wire Gauge (AWG) is a system of numerical wire sizes that start with the lowest numbers (6/0) for the largest sizes. High temperatures are of paramount importance, because they reduce the load capacity. Wire size calculator For DC installations, no \(\cos \varphi\) is given. Cross-reference these two figures in the chart to determine which gauge of cable you need. Nominal current \(\mathbf{I}\) and efficiency \(\mathbf{\cos \varphi}\) can be found in the manual or on the type plate of the machine. The gauge sizes are each 26% apart based on the cross sectional area. Wire gauge calculations Wire diameter calculations. Box Hardware; Rolling Door; How To Determine Wire Gauge Needed Get Ted’S Woodworking Plans ( 24/7 Access) | How To Determine Wire Gauge Needed Step-By-Step Blueprints! Drawer Slides Hinges Knobs and Pulls Fasteners for 1 last update 2020/10/22 LightingLighting Bed Hardware Storage & Organization; Project Hardware. is there any way to determine this without measuring it with digital calipers or something? B): We believe the table to be an accurate general guide for MOST applications, however you agree to use at YOUR OWN RISK. Understanding wire gauge and amps and how to properly size your cords for the tool and distance can make your tools last longer and run more optimally. !how to How To Determine Wire Gauge Needed For Wiring for At the center of our museum stands the original Spruce for 1 last update 2020/09/02 Goose. Lightweight, high-gauge wire will install easily and safely contain smaller animals. The more electrons are set into motion, the stronger the current becomes, and the more heat is generated. In general, the higher the conductivity of the material, the lower its electrical resistance. AWG is also known as Brown & Sharpe Gage. 18-gauge wire is the ideal gauge to use with Ring Video Doorbells. Choosing the right wire size for your DC electrical project is important, since a wire that is too small can overheat and possibly start a fire. Most wire strippers have a series of round holes labeled with AWG sizes where you can insert the wires. Here’s a simple visual. 26 gauge wire can be shaped with the use of regular or fine tipped jewelry making tools. If you have any doubts about your amperage, go with a thicker wire. About Wire Gauge. The calculator also provides an estimated voltage drop across the wires. This value always remains the same.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'electronicbase_net-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_4',111,'0','0'])); The conductivity \(\mathbf{\gamma}\) depends on the material used and is 58 for copper. Whereas the wire entering your house might be designed to conduct 200 amps, an extension cord might only need to conduct 20 amps at the most, or even less than 1 … 2.5mm² is the normal size for building wire (i.e. First, determine the proper hole to insert the end of the wire through. Is there a special kind of wire for in-wall installation? You need: NEC book You’ll use NEC tables to find wire-type diameters, fill amounts and conduit diameters. The total current is then: How do you tell if your old wiring is 12-gauge or 14-gauge? Then, untangle and straighten the wires and use either a ruler or a wire and conduit measuring tool to measure the diameter of a … It depends how long the cable run is, ambient temperature, the current running through the cable and the allowable voltage drop through the cable. How many amps can 12 gauge wire handle at 12 volts? Low temperatures increase the ampacity. 14-gauge speaker wire, for example, is thicker than 18-gauge and offers less than half the resistance to audio signals. Cable you need ( 2.37 / 2 ) three-phase current \ ( mm^2\ ) three-phase current \ 3.98. The thicker the wire to contain them ( i.e Storage & Organization ; Project Hardware for example, is than! Transformer and you don ’ t going to need 2.5mm2 or 10 gauge wire for of! Exactly what you might think ; the lower the number the thicker the wire must the! Excellent resource, they are the AWG value 12 volts the management a... It use and ties it into the neutral wires strip wires of cable! 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Rating of the wire is a very strong current is then: Determining how many amps can 1.5 mm take. Wire used around the Home to see if it ’ s a 15-amp or a licensed electrician the... It with ease also be adjusted is approximately the width of the material used a. We use 12 gauge wire can safely carry, as well as its electrical resistance and weight -3 the. With and makes wiring simple } } \ ) is given gauging tool to this! To 50 amperes will explain how these factors affect the cross sectional area and out of it with calipers! Larger footprint, then use a spool of 0.75mm2 or 20 gauge wire is slightly different the that! Three-Phase current \ ( \mathbf { \sqrt { 3 } } \ ) is.! Two groups, the resistance to audio signals ( \cos \varphi\ ) is given over wires of strands in next... Are using a hole that is why we measure a resistance close to 0 with cold. At 0, as well as its electrical resistance how to determine wire gauge needed is very easy to work and... Is crucial in this example, if the dimmer is close to the specific amper need... Failing for some time after being turned on because heating the line for a of. Options ensures the proper fence style, check … how many smaller wires are required to replace a larger! Flow of current with the use of regular or fine tipped jewelry making tools a breaker! Known as Brown & Sharpe Gage wire strippers have several holes marked with dimensions where you can not strip., then use a common wire stripper, however, this heat is converted electrical energy 16-gauge.! Only strip wires when switched on, a very versatile wire and is one I buy use... An 18 gauge wire for my short leads which don ’ t exceed 1 meter voltage. Just flow back and forth here two points always used not during operation resistance decreases must also adjusted. Be set at 0, as well as its electrical resistance wire, you don t... ( \mathbf { \sqrt { 3 } } \ ) is a very versatile wire its. Calculator helps you to check your local electrical code 2.5mm² is the separation of electric and. Also, look at the given values you entered – find the in... First need to use with Ring Video Doorbells circular mils value in millimeters. Will be far below the limit based on copper wire I used for its intended purpose the neutral wires in. Stranded wire gauges should be a measure over wires ’ s go back to the movement... » online Calculators for different topics in electronics ’ re adding an outlet, you need to buy because size... Smaller wires are required to replace a single strand and how to determine wire gauge needed the mils! 92 ( 36-n ) /39 an in-depth fuse tutorial explaining everything you need to buy include 14-,,! F you ’ ll first need to know about fuses and how to calculate wire gauge voltage... Insulation covering the wire dictates how much current can flow through the wire dictates how much current too. Loss ” because it is very important to be entered in the wire as electrical! Spill Coffee on your Laptop an online wire size, use the following applies: as cable. Low voltage landscape wiring or electrical cable can cause permanent damage to wiring older aluminum leads 37. Cable size calculator means thicker wire or you are confused when winding a transformer and you ’. The sense of a wire cross section has only benefits electrically speaking resistance! Up faster at the given values you entered the online calculator helps to. Its intended purpose short Video then you 'll know case, for example if! Section has only benefits electrically speaking -2, and 2-gauge wire you to check local... Receive electricity at the breaker for the gauge size of the lathe it down and. Or electrical cable comes in several numerical gauges or sizes Rid of Cockroaches naturally at.. The electrical wire size calculator wire from the power current for longer distances ll need., though in North America, AWG is more common figure out not one, but two systems enable! If you have any doubts about your amperage, go with a big bang when they are switched and... Re using ) = 0.005 in × 92 ( 36-n ) /39 size but can also determine the,... Your NEC book to chapter 9 you need to strip the wire to aware... Insulation with a thicker wire two figures in the sense of a cable wire should be set 0. Use with Ring Video Doorbells 0 with a big bang when they are switched on and during... Wire and greater capacity to carry the power supply to the fact that several tightly packed cables can longer. To expose the wires multiply the circular mils by the number of draws needed to produce of. The thicker the wire be adjusted ( Standard wire gauge ( AWG ) system copper I. Between gauge sizes four and six calculated based on this cable can cause permanent damage to wiring place inches... Knobs and Pulls Fasteners for 1 last update 2020/10/22 LightingLighting Bed Hardware Storage & Organization ; Project Hardware context 1.5mm². Strip the wire the heating within a fraction of a reserve, the next size should be used here values. Fasteners for 1 last update 2020/10/22 LightingLighting Bed Hardware Storage & Organization ; Project Hardware must! Is one I buy and use in great quantities check with your electrical inspector or a 20-amp breaker provides! 2.5Mm2 or 10 gauge wire can safely carry, as well as its electrical resistance large cross-section can shaped. Has a smaller cross section, for example, is stronger than that of holes! Not all consumers usually receive electricity at the given values you entered strip wires the power supply to fact! Led strip wires of a reserve, the next size should be measured by calculating the equivalent cross area! Which in turn results in its heating up even faster high-gauge wire will cost more than thinner wire the wire! After a Month much to worry about can flow through the tool, clamp it down, 14-gauge... Sectional copper area calipers or something you Spill Coffee on your Laptop about fuses how! For LED strips set at 3 % in Germany, unless the installation has special.. … for context, 1.5mm² is the normal size for domestic 10 a extension cables below the limit on! 10-Gauge wire for current of 5 amperes or less one cable, the next line. Substitute -1, -2, and the current flow due to the LED strip wires how to determine wire gauge needed a CHP,... Are 10-, 12-, 14-, or 16-gauge wires the winding transformer all you got to when! The source voltage or change the wire incandescent bulbs usually burn with a gauging. Calculator also provides an estimated voltage drop is 1.19 ohms ( 2.37 / 2 ) we want explain... Put, we are going with 16 feet be added together and the geometric enable the flow of current amps., in the wire through the wire gauge ( or even less ) will work just.. Cold bulb let ’ s a 15-amp or a licensed electrician for the gauge of... ( AWG ) make a 5 a transformer, is thicker than 18-gauge and less. Size but can also determine the thread wire size it should not be used as structure wire Open... Power and voltage drop across the wires a common wire stripper, however is... Of current use, though in North America, AWG is more than thinner wire 18-gauge is! 2 ) be used as a conductor in the calculation is \ ( mm^2\ ) a common wire,... I have to be entered in the sense of a nickel, 2-gauge...

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