policy Viewed with a feminist perspective, empowerment is supported through collaboration, not competition and power plays (Sullivan, 2004). Influence can range from the punitive power of coercion to the interactive power of collaboration. Only gold members can continue reading. These leadership skills are also essential to effective followers. You may also needDeveloping the Role of LeaderLeading, Managing, and FollowingSelf-Management: Stress and TimeConsumer RelationshipsManaging Personal/Personnel ProblemsDeveloping the Role of ManagerCultural Diversity in Health CareContext • Speech: using a firm, confident voice; good grammar and diction; an appropriate vocabulary; and strong communication skills. Nurses can move from political apathy to activism by learning the requisite skills through (1) holding an active membership in professional organizations that provide information and opportunities for networking; (2) attending workshops, conferences, and academic courses that support the development of political skills and expansion of political/policy knowledge; (3) engaging with legislators through lobbying and campaign work; and (4) moving into leadership roles in nursing organizations. Nurses who teach patients use expert and information power by virtue of the information they share with patients; they also exercise position power because they are registered nurses and therefore are accorded a certain status by society. Professional politics focuses on the workplace and professional nursing organizations. Expert power: Results from the knowledge and skills one possesses that are needed by others. They are often used in concert to exert influence on individuals or groups. Exercise 10-3 This chapter describes how power and politics influence the roles of leaders and managers and how leaders and managers use power and politics to be influential. A staff nurse demonstrates great skill in teaching patients difficult self-care activities and is sought out by colleagues to help them teach their patients. An advanced practice nurse is viewed as the clinical expert on a nursing unit and as a powerful person. A sense of self-confidence is essential for successful political efforts in the workplace, within the profession, and within the public policy arena. This can result in a workplace culture that is marked by conflict, anger, and other dysfunctional behaviors. Identify this person’s key image factors. Some nurses, including both new graduates and seasoned veterans, have too often viewed power as if it were something immoral, corrupting, and totally contradictory to the caring nature of nursing. People of high status (e.g., vice presidents, directors, deans) within an organization may be sought out for conversation by those who want to move up the organizational hierarchy. These types of power are not mutually exclusive. Having a high-status position in an organization immediately provides stature, but power depends on the ability to accomplish goals from that position. Many social, technologic, scientific, and economic trends have shaped nursing and nurses and nursing’s ability to exercise power during the twentieth century. Our hospital was trying hard to improve customer service. 1. Sheila Burke, MPA, RN, FAAN, served as Chief of Staff for Senator Robert Dole while he was Senate Majority Leader in the United States Congress, making her one of the most powerful congressional staff people in Washington. Sullivan (2004, p. 33) offers a revised view of types of power that readily apply to the efforts of nurses in the workplace, in professional organizations, and in politics (see the Theory Box on p. 180). authority, control, and force. The new healthcare worker did not materialize from this proposal. This can result in a workplace culture that is marked by conflict, anger, and other dysfunctional behaviors. Self-interest: involvement in professional organizations to further one’s own career; the development and use of political expertise to further the profession’s self-interests, 4. Sharing power and facilitating the empowerment of colleagues so that they exercise their power are strong forces in creating vibrant workplace cultures. • Nurses who view power as finite will avoid cooperation with their colleagues and refuse to share their expertise. Building Your Power Base From his own research on power and that of others, Pfeffer has identified 7 important qualities needed by leaders to build personal power. Focus on Power Powerful nurse managers enable nurses to exercise power, influencing them to grow professionally. Workplace politics are the manifestation of power dynamics among co-workers. Power in the workplace has traditionally been defined as force, dominance, assertiveness, strength, invincibility, and authority. A former school nurse, Congresswoman Capps has since been re-elected by her constituents to the House seat. Indeed, Henry Mintzberg (1989) posits that organizational politics is not an upshot of structure but power, and therefore communication and transparency cannot deracinate politics. Log In or. Some nurses are still uncomfortable with politics and the use of power, treating “politics” as if it were a dirty word. Among nurses, oppressed group behavior is manifested in low self-esteem (e.g., “I’m just a nurse”), passive aggressiveness (e.g., nurse-on-nurse bullying), distancing oneself from other nurses (e.g., the failure of nurses to join professional organizations), and engaging in intragroup conflicts (e.g., “infighting” or horizontal violence) (Matheson & Bobay, 2007; Roberts, 1983). Our director provided us with such a program. Today, in an era of expanding nursing roles (e.g., advanced practice nurses, clinical nurse leaders, and new roles for graduates of doctor of nursing practice [DNP] programs), nurses must continue to exercise their power to shape the continuing development of the profession of nursing and the future of the healthcare system. Political sophistication: high level of professional organization activism (e.g., holding office at the local and state level) moving beyond self-interests; recognition of the need for activism on behalf of the public and the profession, 5. In nursing’s formative years, the exercise of power was considered inappropriate, unladylike, and unprofessional. • Value the concept of power as it relates to leadership and management in nursing. Schools of nursing too often fail to socialize students to be activists. Coaching a new graduate nurse to complete a complicated nursing procedure successfully vividly demonstrates the ability of the experienced nurse to influence that orientee. Powerlessness, a behavior still exhibited by some nurses, results in negative emotions such as apathy and anger. Schools of nursing too often fail to socialize students to be activists. Although some may think that “knowledge is power,” acting on that knowledge is where the real power lies. Perceived power: Results from one’s reputation as a powerful person. Encouraging a reticent colleague to be an active participant in committee meetings serves to empower that nurse and to shape practice policy with the institution. Chapter 8 is a continuation of this topic, but with a description of One simple definition of politics that this author uses when teaching health policy and politics in nursing is “a process of human interaction within organizations.” Politics permeates all organizations, including workplaces, legislatures, professions, and even families. They are often used in concert to exert influence on individuals or groups. One simple definition of politics that this author uses when teaching health policy and politics in nursing is “a process of human interaction within organizations.” Politics permeates all organizations, including workplaces, legislatures, professions, and even families. Guiding a novice nurse in exercising professional judgment empowers both the senior nurse and the novice clinician. Sheila Burke, MPA, RN, FAAN, served as Chief of Staff for Senator Robert Dole while he was Senate Majority Leader in the United States Congress, making her one of the most powerful congressional staff people in Washington. Engaging in the politics of the workplace is critical for effective nursing leadership and management. Coaching a patient on how to be more assertive with a physician who is reluctant to answer the patient’s questions is another form of empowerment. Diana J. Mason, PhD, RN, FAAN, editor emerita of the American Journal of Nursing, has long hosted a radio talk show in New York City on healthcare issues. negotiating What kinds of power did you observe this nurse using? The emergency department (ED) had been receiving frequent calls that were not relevant to the work of the ED, such as asking how long to cook a turkey and where the closest 24-hour veterinary clinic is. The VP had just gotten off the phone with the chief executive officer (CEO) of the hospital. As the economic and social power of women evolved, so did the power of nurses. Often we had to tell callers we could not provide them with the information requested; these responses were met with hostile and even obscene reactions from some callers. politics Students need to be exposed to the concepts of political action and public policy. The woman with the cat called him to accuse me of calling her obscene names and refusing to help her. It follows then that business is a natural home for those who are motivated to seek power and use it in pursuance of their goals and ambitions. Dysfunctional politics can sink an organization, and yet most of the executives I teach react with distaste to the idea of being a savvy organizational politician. Changing the behavior of one’s colleagues by instructing them about a new policy being implemented on the nursing unit is another example of how nurses exercise power. Politics refers to irrational behavior of the individuals at the workplace to obtain advantages which are beyond their control. The most basic power strategy is the development of a powerful image. New graduates, employed on probationary status until they demonstrate the initial clinical competencies of a position, may view the nurse manager as exercising both position and expert power related to their evaluation for continued employment. Oppressed group behavior is apparent when a population is dominated by another group. Yet public policy and politics shape what we do as nurses, from the nurse practice acts that allow for the licensure of nurses to policies that drive reimbursement for healthcare services. A nurse who lobbies legislators uses expertise, information, and perceived power to encourage support for a bill to expand healthcare services to the children of the working poor. CHAPTER 10 What kind of power image message do they send? The VP directed her to suspend me immediately to placate the CEO; my director insisted that I had done nothing wrong and refused to suspend me, based on the information the others had given her. Matheson and Bobay (2007) conducted a review of the literature to validate oppressed group behavior in nursing. Sadly, the media, politicians, organized medicine, some healthcare executives, and some nurses have traditionally viewed nurses and nursing as powerless. Value the concept of power as it relates to leadership and management in nursing. If you have to tell people you are, you aren’t.” You don’t have to wear a sign around your neck to show that you are powerful! If all nurses became actively engaged in professional nursing organizations, the entire profession could move ahead in a dramatic manner. Empowerment is the process of exercising one’s own power. Our director provided us with such a program. If all nurses became actively engaged in professional nursing organizations, the entire profession could move ahead in a dramatic manner. In general society, celebrities have this type of power, which is why they are often paid a lot of money to advertise products to us. What did the nurse do that told you, “This is a powerful person”? People of high status (e.g., vice presidents, directors, deans) within an organization may be sought out for conversation by those who want to move up the organizational hierarchy. Nurses and nursing have gained new respect in the political arena in recent years. • Speech: using a firm, confident voice; good grammar and diction; an appropriate vocabulary; and strong communication skills. Envision the exercise of shared power along a spectrum from low to high levels of sharing. For example, Congresswoman Lois Capps, MA, BSN, RN, represents a California congressional district; she assumed the office held by her husband upon his death. Avoiding involvement in the politics of nursing in the workplace, in the profession at large, or in the area of public policy limits the power of the individual nurse and the profession as a whole. A secretary paged our nursing director to come to the ED while the call was in progress. Politics can be defined in many ways. They noted that nurses continue to demonstrate some of the behaviors characteristic of oppressed groups, but they could not validate that these behaviors occur directly as a result of oppression by outside groups. From apathy to savvy to activism: Becoming a politically active nurse. We learned to deal with verbal hostility with assertive communication. Recall a recent opportunity in which you observed the work of an expert nurse. This subordinate or oppressed group begins to take on the characteristics of the dominant group and reject the characteristics of their own group, although this behavior fails to create a balance of power with the dominant group (Roberts 1983). Power, Politics, and Influence [ citation needed ] "Organizational politics are self-serving behaviors" that "employees use to increase the probability … Legislative politics deals with law and public policy. ]GN¸`ªÆ†‹ÏM1”uDñÂÞv“òžh¦y ¾'²=¤aÿè)eÚ²cbÞ¢óëäÆ©´ËÃi‹T¶>—FÏͪq)ˆ¦…©¢„Íù14—"°tRöõ€…S»Ée%ˆL?ÐKß¾îY7ËbMLÛïà£ÅTÜZ,»®x÷[€ +I&A endstream endobj 696 0 obj 458 endobj 697 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 696 0 R >> stream APPLICATION TO PRACTICE Encouraging a reticent colleague to be an active participant in committee meetings serves to empower that nurse and to shape practice policy with the institution. Viewed with a feminist perspective, empowerment is supported through collaboration, not competition and power plays (Sullivan, 2004). When nurses provide health teaching to patients and their families, the goal is to change patient/family behavior to promote optimal health. Choose appropriate strategies for exercising power to influence the politics of the work setting, professional organizations, legislators, and the development of health policy. Social scientists have studied the use and abuse of power in human organizations. Engaging in the politics of the workplace is critical for effective nursing leadership and management. Identify this person’s key image factors. Despite the role that power plays in organizations, Pfeffer observes that it a topic rarely included in leadership development programs. They quickly learn to ask permission or ask for a desired item from that parent before asking the other. 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