Does this refer to the government treating its citizens well resulting in personal prosperity, or, the government working for the common good?115 Or, does it have a more spiritual denotation as in 8:8? Barrett, C. K. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. Cf. Due to the emphasis on the Gentiles, as indicated above, as well as Paul's personal call to the Gentile mission (15:16), it would appear that the Gentiles were in the majority. 10. Paul does not address these kinds of issues here. Both Romans 13:1-7 and 1 Peter 2:13-17 stand grammatically unconnected to their immediately preceding contexts. From these two examples we can see that humility is involved in a process of submitting oneself to a higher authority—ultimately a voluntary submission in the light of the power of the higher authority. perform their functions fearing punishments. ." Themelios 16 (1990): 18-22. "Social Values in the Rhetoric of Pauline Paraenetic Literature." 12:12 with Rom 9). governing authorities) over people. He has disregarded the context in Romans 13 with its focus on the individual and his conclusion therefore seems highly unlikely. The use of uJperevcw once again suggests a common tradition from which these writers are drawing. Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series. See Morris, Romans, 467. Tasker (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1958), 230, 31. Faith and Mission 8 (1990): 85-93. Here the MT says that God will not show love to the House of Israel with the result that He would forgive their sin. The king asks the question, "How can one find welcome abroad among strangers?" It is a general principle Werner Georg Kümmel and trans. 24. An Introduction to the New Testament. "El verbo 'Hypotassein' y la parenesis social de 1 Pe 2, 11-17." Status Quo Bias. imposition if you go to school with an incomplete homework? (See above under "Romans 13:1-7: An Interpolation? 3.223; War 5. The injunctions in both Romans 13:7 and 1 Peter 2:17 are universal in their appeal. Paul may have made such an issue out of it in order to protect the Christians in Philippi from any further unnecessary harassment from the authorities, but at the bottom of it lies the just protest of one who was unjustly handled by the state. Tetagmevnai is a perfect middle from tavssw which means "to determine," or "to appoint;" the same meaning it carried in non-biblical Greek.68 The term is used in the New Testament eight times. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. 80 Ksemann, Romans, 356. Scriptura 22 (1987): 40-47. They not only obey the laws 227-298. 15 Bruce, "Paul and 'the Powers That Be,'" 78, n. 2. That this does not form the background to the passage has been argued by Winsome Munro, "Romans 13:1-7: Apartheid's Last Biblical Refuge," Biblical Theological Bulletin 20 (Winter 1990), 164, 5. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1902), 370. D. M. G. Stalker (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1971), 213. The imperative poivei refers to actively doing good deeds as a member of society, not just passively keeping within the limits of the laws of the land. The construction tends to emphasize the present aspect of the appointment and tetagmevnai continues the language of order and submission that pervades Romans 13:1-7.67 Such language includes: uJpotassevsqw/ uJpotavssesqai, ajntitassovmeno", diataghv and ajnqevsthken. So, if we do not follow the state in all its ideology and demands, we will end up being judged by them should they disagree with our Christian convictions.65, 13:1b ouj gaVr e[stin ejxousiva eij mhV uJpoV qeou', aiJ deV ousai uJpoV qeou' tetagmevnai eijsivn. " The wife is to submit to her husband as to the Lord (Eph 5:24; Col. 3:18; Titus 2:5; 1 Peter 3:1, 5; and Ps. From the lack of a reference to the church at Rome (i.e. 377), when he was exhorting the Jews not to fight against Titus, asked them this question, "And when was it that God, who is the Creator of the Jewish people, did not avenge them when they had been injured" (italics mine)?133 In summary, the term as it is used here and in other places in the literature speaks of the active pursuit of those who do evil. 101 Porter, "Romans," 131. Your reason to obey the one-way sign is independent of sanctions or legitimacy — it’s simply to coordinate with people.” But law also works expressively by signaling information about risk or public attitudes that causes people to update their behavior. breakfast in the afternoon everyday and the clothes are strewn here and there. ed. ed., ed. It is used one other time in Luke 7:8. 62 Some commentators, due to the strong use of subjection language in the passage seem to imply an obedience to the state which is rendered without question. Although Paul wrote some eight years earlier there does not appear to be direct literary dependence on Peter's part. ..." See also Günther Bornkamm, Paul, trans. Porter, "Romans," 134, interprets it to refer only to the preceding argument, not to anything following it. In Wisdom of Solomon 6:5 the text reads "because severe judgment falls on those in high places" where kings and rulers (cf. Josephus says, "while all the nations in subjection to them [Rome] had placed the images of Caesar in their several cities, among the rest of their gods,—for them alone [i.e. also Midrash on Psalm 2:2. He has a passion to teach and disciple others, and holds a Th.M. The nearest antecedent for the phrase would refer to the collection of taxes paid by the those living in Rome.160 Barrett,161 on the other hand, suggests that the reference is to the government's promotion of the good and punishment of the evil as outlined in verses 1-4. mavcairan in v. 4) it seems almost certain that it refers to the Roman rulers (Matt 20:25; John 7:26; 12:42; Acts 3:17; 1 Cor 2:6-8; Ps Sol 17:36; Jos. When Paul writes to the Roman Christians in A. D. 57, he obviously writes to a flourishing community which includes many Gentiles, although it is not forgotten that its base was Jewish.". traditional values instilled. Affiliation with sovereign citizenship ideas causes a person to scrutinize tax, federal, state and local laws carefully to find flaws and loopholes. 172 Stein, "Romans, " 342, points out that, "The parallelism and rhyme (fovron-fovbon; tevlo"-timhvn) should be noted. In Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. A CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF THE MODERN STATE SYSTEM BDF, *463. Cranfield is responding to this generalized interpretation of the passage. Taxes are collected by the authorities because they are leitourgoiV. What kind of submission is Paul talking about? Its contribution to the argument has been carefully demonstrated by Stein. Therefore, the term mavcairan (i. e. sword) is a symbol121 which refers to judicial action carried out by the state against a person who has in some way opposed the state.122 The question that has often come up in the discussion of this term is whether or not it refers to such extreme action as capital punishment. Matt 1:1). African Ecclesiastical Review 26 (1984): 338-47. Vol. Rev ed. 100 J. C. O'Neill, Romans, 211, follows Rudolph Bultmann, Der Stil der paulinischen Predigt und die kynisch-stoische Diatribe (Gttingen, 1910), 15ff, and argues for the diatribe style here. 5) and Plato for the most part. In a stable political society, the issue of legitimacy rarely arises. The "sword" is used in the NT on many occasions to refer to the authorities' right to take life if it is deemed that one has committed an offense worthy of such punishment (cf. Porter, S. E. "Romans 13:1-7 As Pauline Political Rhetoric." Instead Porter argues that the limits on the authority of the government are to be found in the text itself wherein Paul refers to the ejxousivai" uJperecouvsai".75 These, he states, are a reference to "just" authorities. establish good traditions, and obedience to the state, that which becomes a See also, Black, Romans, 160. Note the use of oijkonomiva in Ephesians 3:2, 9. For a different perspective on the force of the term see Ziesler, Romans, 313. We live in a generation in which public opinion of those in political leadership is probably at an all time low. Stein, R. H. "The Argument of Romans 13:1-7." Cranfield, Romans, 2:664 argues that both the eternal judgment as well as a temporal judgment are in view. "Romans XIII. 147 Barrett, Romans, 247; Black, Romans, 160; Bruce, Romans, 224; Cranfield, Romans, 2:668; Dunn, Romans, 2:765; Fitzmyer, Romans, 669; Hendricksen, Romans, 437; Porter, "Romans," 134; Stein, "Romans," 337. Mark 13:13-17). In referring to a well brought up son who can take issue with his father's enemies, Sirach 30:6 says that "He [i.e. He appears to take Christian tradition on church-state relations and applies it to the Christians so that the state will not entertain the accusations and decide to persecute the Church. Again, the opposition spoken of would qualify as "determined resistance" in an attempt to frustrate—only here in a good sense since God is the author of the opposition. The substantival participle oJ ajntitassovmeno" comes from the verb ajntitavssw which is used only five times in the New Testament and here in Romans 13 forms the antithesis to the verb uJpotavssw used in verse 1. But to exclude the right of the death penalty when the nature of the crime calls for such is totally contrary to that which the sword signifies and executes. First, the term ajpovdote in Romans 13:7 recalls that same term spoken by Jesus in Mark 12:17: "TaV Kaisaro" ajpovdote Kaivsari. "Consequently (w{ste) the one who resists authority, opposes the institution of God,". Greg lives in Calgary Alberta, Canada with his wife and 4 kids. He claims that certain Christian enthusiasts had thrown off all restraint in the light of their heavenly calling and regarded "earthly authorities with indifference or contempt.29 This may be true, but it is difficult to defend from within or outside of the passage. Stuhlmacher, Peter. The overall witness for the NA26 reading is solid, including a A B Y. So the hard question is how we come to actually acquire political and legal obligations. This issue has already been touched upon above as concerns the interpolation of Romans 13:1-7. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927. 38b. Others of his works are also important inunderstanding his political philosophy, especially his history of theEnglish Civil War, B… Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1979. Imagine you have (cf. In Jesus and the Politics of His Day. ejxousivai" uJperecouvsai"—"governing authorities." 11. Feine, Behm, Kümmel, Introduction, 219. 10 Other commentators doubt Pauline authorship due to the lack of a Christological foundation in the passage. Vol. 20 Reasons Why You Should Break The Rules. 130 See P Oxy. The members develop a binding towards the state. Frank E Gaebelein, vol. I am the Lord and there is no other, 7The One who forming light and creating darkness, Causing well being and creating calamity; I am the Lord who does all these. ________. The connector gavr (v. 4b) is explanatory and introduces the reason why the person who does evil should fear, namely, because the state does not carry (forei')120 the sword for nothing. 91 There is debate as to whether gavr gives a further reason for the command in verse 1 or introduces an explanation relating to the krivma of verse 2. to punish and to praise) of the state and certainly on the Christian's relationship to it (i.e., submission). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. Goppelt, Leonhard. "106 Nowhere else does Paul or any other NT writer refer to the state as the qeou' diavkono".107 But the term does appear to have been used this way in and around the time of the NT108 and instances of such usage can be seen in the LXX (Esther 1:10; 2:2; 6:3109) as well. 26:37; Deut 7:24; 9:2; Josh 1:5, etc. It would appear, however, that we simply cannot be as precise as Borg or Ksemann suggest. ajgaqov"/kavkov" in 12:21 and 13:3, 4; oJrghv in 12:19 in 13:4, 5; ejkdikevw/e]kdiko" in 12:19 and 3:4; pavntwn ajnqrwvpwn/pa`sin in 12:17, 18 and 13:7; ojfeilhv /ojfeivlw in 13:7, 8. The only substantive problems concern the definite article th`" in 3:25 and the addition of Cristou` in 3:26. Also, landlocked Switzerland is able to vote on whaling issues for which it has little to no authority on such an issue. Dunn, James D. G. Romans 9-16. The Epistle to the Romans. It is simply a question of fairness and each citizen owes the other to carry out his or her own part to enjoy the benefits. Ksemann is following A. Strobel, "Zum Verstndnis vom Rm, 13 ZNW 47 (1956), 67-93, at this point. The term itself occurs 30 times in the New Testament in Acts (2x), Romans (3x; 2:15; 9:1 and 13:5), 1 and 2 Corinthians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Hebrews and 1 Peter. Second, there is nothing in Romans 13:1-7 that tends to favor a qualitative reading of the participle. the father] has left behind him an avenger against his enemies, and one to repay the kindness of his friends" (italics mine). 1-7: An Interpolation." Lampe, G. W. H., ed. This is certainly a highly interpretive rendering of the MT. and ed. We may proceed with the confidence that this passage is truly from the hand of Paul. Matt 26:52; Luke 21:24; Acts 12:2; 16:27; Heb 11:34, 37; Rev 13:10).126 The sense here in Romans is precisely that, though Paul would include the magistrate's punitive authority in much less serious matters as well. Consider also 2 Maccabees 3:11 and the relation of wealth to positions of power and Philo, De Agricultura, 121, for its use to refer to a superior athlete. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. Neotestamentica 28, (1994): 109-26. Rev. In 4:17 Daniel says, "The decision is announced by messengers, the holy ones declare the verdict, so that the living may know that the Most High is sovereign over the kingdoms of men and gives them to anyone he wishes and sets over them the lowliest of men." 13:5 Wherefore (dioV) it is necessary to submit, not only because of wrath, but also because of conscience. J. I. H. McDonald, "Romans 13.1-7: A Test Case for New Testament Interpretation," NTS 35 (October 1989), 543. London: Christophers, 1938. See also Ksemann, Romans, 359, who takes it as an indicative. To what does eij" aujtoV tou'to refer? In only one instance in the New Testament does it carry the idea of "forced submission," i.e. Brown, Raymond E. and John P. Meier. . 13:17-19; Dan 7:9-14; Zeph 1:14-2:3; Mal 4:1; Wisd Sol 12:12). C. K. Barrett argues that the reference is to the state's right of capital punishment. But, with the presence of ktivsei (1 Pet 2:13), it is possible to see traces of this idea. What we have in verse 5, argues Stein, is a summary by way of chiasm, of verses 1-4.149 In verses 1-4, Paul has exhorted believers to submit to the state for two reasons: 1) God has established the state and 2) the state will punish wrongdoers. joining 13:1-7 to 12:21) as he simply allowed the tradition to stand as is. In Leviticus 23:29-30 the Hebrew text has vp#n lk* which the LXX translates as pa'sa yuchv. 132 See F. F. Bruce, 1 & 2 Thessalonians, Word Biblical Commentary, ed. Bruce Metzger, ed., A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (London: United Bible Societies, 1971), 528, 29. 170 Cranfield, Romans, 2:670-72. Two instances of the verb in the middle voice are of note: 2 Maccabees 9:12 and 13:23. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. Immediately one is confronted with the change from the second person singular in 12:19-21 to the third person singular in 13:1. Paul says that the one who resists governmental authorities opposes (ajnqevsthken) the order or structure which comes from God. 13, 1-7 in der gegenwartigen Diskussion." New Testament Studies 14 (1967): 118-25. Hokhma 50 (1992): 29-47. and Ph.D. from Dallas Theological Seminary. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993. Interpretation. 1-7: A Test Case for New Testament Interpretation." Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991. The LXX renders God's refusal to forgive Israel by the language of opposition—"I will no longer show mercy to Israel, but will surely oppose her" (my translation). Luke 7:8; 19:17, esp. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1990. It may indeed intend to punish him, but its intended punishment will then turn out to be praise. New Testament Studies 12 (1966): 389-91. EfemMex 9 (1991): 57-70. But in 13:4 the question arises as to whether it is divine wrath or simply the wrath of the state. II. your  house  to  Crawford, R. G. "Theological Bombshell in South Africa." Ogle, A. The Letter of Paul to the Romans. BDF, *252 (1) and the generic use of the article. 76:7; Jer. The term e[kdiko" can be used in three distinct senses. 15:49; James 2:3.) See also Bruce, "Christianity Under Claudius," 310, 16. 13:6 For this reason (diaV tou`to gavr) you pay taxes, for (gavr) [those in authority] are God's servants who persist in this very thing. ________. 26 Tacitus, Annuls ab excessu divi Augusti, 13:50, 51, writes: "In the same year, as a consequence of repeated demands from the public, which complained of the exactions of the revenue-farmers [Companies of Roman Knights] Nero hesitated whether he ought to decree the abolition of all indirect taxation and present the reform as the noblest of gifts to the human race." Zahn, Theodore. 27 Though the origin of the church in Rome is a matter of great debate, it seems reasonable that the Jews who heard Peter's sermon in Acts 2 :1-13 (cf. This theory on the psychology of obedience highlights our desire to avoid change. Though the theories mention about the political Sirach 10:4 says that "the government of the earth is in the hand of the Lord, and over it He will raise up the right leader for the time" (cf. coercive authority of the state that compels a man to conform to the system of Edited by Brian S. Rosner, 337-50. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary. The fact that he may not emphasize eschatological ideas is no grounds for asserting a contradiction. These expressions have the broadest reference and scope. The term is also used in the LXX (2 Macc 15:2), Josephus (Ant. 39 Concerning taV" ajrcaV" kaiV taV" ejxousiva" as a reference to Roman officials see, John Nolland, Luke 9:21-18:34, Word Biblical Commentary, ed. Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche 56 (1959): 316-76. Deidun, T. J. Subject/Complement: The reason the Roman Christians should submit to the governing authorities and give them their proper due is because the authorities have been appointed by God (as attested by conscience) and will praise those who do good and inflict punishment (i.e. "A New Context for Romans XIII." 120 BAGD, 864 (1). 22. Providing for the common good and maintaining order are related to each other. Cullmann, Oscar. 13:2 For (gavr) there is no authority except [that which is given] by God and those who are appointed by God. We note in this passage that Isaiah is speaking proleptically and thus there is an eschatology inherent in God's dealings with nations as he raises up leaders and peoples according to his grand purposes.70. Ralph P. Martin, vol. The term is found in literature outside the New Testament as well. 344-47. 3And I will give you the treasures of darkness, And hidden wealth of secret places, In order that you may know that it is I, The Lord, the God of Israel, who calls you by your name. 13:7 Give back to all people what is owed; taxes to whom taxes are due; revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due and honor to whom honor is due. People have a general duty to obey the law because it is democratically decided. In 5:6, though the opposition spoken of was only hypothetical to show the injustice of the rich oppressors, it carries with it here the note of strong, determined opposition, sufficient to warrant decisive action on the part of the opposed. .'." 69 This does not in anyway negate the cross or bring into question the Pauline authorship of this segment. The International Critical Commentary. 1. Brethern Life and Thought 32 (1987): 208-16. We will discuss this in a moment, but it is necessary to address first from whence Paul is deriving his idea of governmental authority. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. Vonck, P. "All Authority Comes From God: Romans 13:1-7--a Tricky Text About Obedience to Political Power." B. Judge and G. S. R. Thomas, "The Origin of the Church at Rome: A New Solution?" It means at least that the office of the government official, his leitourgia is from God. 194). The reference in Matthew, John and James refer to wearing clothes (see also Josephus, Ant. perform their functions fearing punishments. as a whole (3:19); to the Pentateuch (3:21) and to the principle of law in general (3:27). 6:10 and the toV agjaqovn, also, 1 Peter 3:13). But Paul goes much further than Peter does. These reasons can be personal or very general, based on our natural human psychology. This would tend to further the idea that what we have in the last clause is support for those individuals mentioned as ejxousiva. Union Seminary Quarterly Review 39 (1984): 161-73. And so, two apostles who counseled Christians to obey the state were executed because they would not obey the state. "Romans 13." Translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. In fact, both Peter and Paul argue that from the foundation of their Christianity Christians are to recognize world leaders and governmental authorities. . 1 Peter 2:13 reads uJpotavghte pavsh/ ajnqrwpivnh/ ktivsei diaV toVn kuvrion. To have a political obligation is to have a moral duty to obey the laws and support the institutions of one’s political community. Luke 4:6; 22:53; 23:7; Eph 2:2). In Daniel 3, the Babylonian king erected a golden image and required all people to worship it. Nurnberger, K. "Theses on Romans 13." also 2 Apocalypse of Baruch 82:9).72. Rev ed. Fourth, both writers end with universal appeals describing the kind of posture Christians are to maintain before all people. . 72 For Rabbinic examples consult Herman L. Strack and Paul Billerbeck, Kommentar zum neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrash (München: C. H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1926), 304, who cite GnR 94 which says, "R. Judan (um 350) hat gesagt: Wer sich frech gegen den Knig benimmt, ist wie einer, der sich frech gegen die Schekhina (Gottheit) benimmt." 10 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing Company, 1976), 200, 22. Introduction to the New Testament. Dan 10:21). your  house  to  Some have seen in this text a reference to the tradition found in Mark 12:17 and parallels. 38 Gerhard Delling, TDNT, VIII, 41; cf. The Anchor Bible. 86 The expression krivma lhvmyontai appears to be a Semitic locution: "to receive judgment." Paul goes much further than Peter does in expanding on these ideas. the fact that the state is established by God), is not entirely adequate. See also S. Lgasse, "Paul et Csar, Romains 13, 1-7: Essai de Synthse," Revue Biblique 101 (October 1994), 520, who affirms that "La diatrib est caractristique de Paul.". "The Purpose of Romans." you have a sense of patriotism? that human beings always wish for peace and order. See Matt 12:40 Luke 20:47; James 3:1; cf. That this is the explanation is severely weakened by the fact that Paul had been treated unjustly by the Roman authorities (Acts 16:22, 37; 2 Cor 11:25) and it was ultimately those authorities that he understood to be the ones who crucified Christ (1 Cor 2:8). W. Ward Gasque (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1992), 78; Ernest Best, 1 Peter, New Century Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids; William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 114. Prophets are to be in submission one to another so that peace and order may be maintained (1 Cor 14:32). Hence, in a nation, even the citizens wish to Edited by Karl P. Donfried, 65-84. The text refers to Vitellius, who after having suffered the humiliation of defeat offered his dagger to Caecilius Simplex, the consul standing beside him, in order that the consul might put him to death. Reese, J. L. Jr. `` the argument of Romans 13 are indeed human,. The authorities. event, this coheres well with Paul 's mind in Rom 13:1-7. conform to tradition. Some things are tough—e here again we see, what are the reasons that make individual... Who argues that the emphasis of the death penalty exclusively to refer only to the New Testament 34 1988. Methodology of Proceeding from exegesis to an Ethical Decision. 63 ( )! And Romans 13:1-7, '' 134, interprets it to say here that nowhere in the outworking of God servant... In chapter 13 mesh quite well, 1979 ): 176-92, 314 stable society heavy emphasis on the 's. Not stand, this statement of course there is more here than the evil that would result anarchy.64people! James refer to a certain posture before civil authority. not be necessary to submit to whatever God. Letter to the Pentateuch ( 3:21 ) and that is mostly always painful as it is not adequate! Have picked up on this question in the afternoon everyday and the parallel to principle! The Mosaic law, Josephus maintains a similar idea ( Ant, parallel use later in Hellenism, was..., Let us understand that political obligations are a broader category of duties than strictly legal obligations Word... A summary of his reasons: God’s sovereignty latter will have to be the explicit for... View is that it is difficult to see Cranfield 's rationale for the idea of e [ rgw/ tw'/! Decisions without thinking too much soteriology into diavkono '' ejstin soiV eij '' ajgaqovn! Is intrinsic to the New Testament. yet another link that renders this section relevant to the O.T always for! Term ejxousivai '' is not repeated and if one inserts it, it must be said about submission the..., rev telei ` te as an attempt to improve the text ''. Same construction in 1 Kings 11:34 argument in 13:1-4 ).56 that most would that. Each use of uJpotavssw that peace and order take up arms against the state that a. Also Bruce, 1. ( 2:11-3:12 )., Studie zu Rm 13:1-7 ( Theologische Existenz Heute Munich. Means at least that the antecedent is to read too much soteriology into ''. ' Y La parenesis Social de 1 Pe 2, 11-17. that man. Has called upon his magnificent and holy name ends when further service impossible... To share his glory, but gives grace to the state to legitimately determine life and Thought 32 1987., William Arnot Mather, Louis Hodous, Edward Strong Worcester, William Arnot,! Is an indication that the Word Became Flesh we’re told to do a, acon: AyKi while LXX. Its originality judgment on themselves a stranger. his Letters, ed ) how does it refer,! With sovereign citizenship ideas causes a person who causes such things, according to Thirteen. Literature. circles with regards to the state as the Christian 's political responsibility according to Romans.. ( 1989 ), Christmas Searches: Expository Sermons for Christmas,.. Temporal judgment are in view here that can be made as well the to. 'S state greater `` justness '' as opposed to some punitive action relationship. To relate the command given in 13:1a forbid Paul to the principle authority. `` all authority comes from God. rulers only qualitative superiority as well as to our! Criticisms against pierce, C. H. `` a New context for Romans.. Contribute to the New Testament Social Ethics Today., reasons for obeying the state: Word Books, Publisher, ). Southern Africa 63 ( 1988 ): 3-11 understood in a Christian provides... The state’s legal requirement, and final, certain similarities and differences between Paul the. Recognizes something of Jesus, a saying which was also recorded by Mark in which opinion! Because, he is the right thing to do desire to avoid change Rm.! 134, interprets it to say here that nowhere in the New Testament and other! Ever Thought why should we obey expression in Mark 12:17 and parallels psychology of obedience your. 13:5 Wherefore ( dioV ) it is possible to see Cranfield 's rationale for the Lord 's supper once. Carry the idea that Paul derives his language of submission that would result from must... The submission of Israel to foreign powers, i.e lorimer, on one. Was conscious of the two basic ideas stated above out the ajnavgkh and uJpotavssesqe. Time low only indicates that what we have in the LXX renders the Phrase: ajll in public. Of verses 1-4 will be demonstrated in the middle voice are of note: 2 Maccabees 9:12 and.. Knows nothing of the second use in 3:9 refers to those among whom one is confronted with the of! Authority. use later in verse 5, Paul, as Dunn Romans. And eschatological, the Epistle to the tradition found in Literature outside the Testament! Unserer generation. for South Africa 79 ( 1982 ): 163-81: 232-331 the of. And history, trans out a conclusion based upon the preceding argument in.... Use of the term ejxousivai '' and the Reception of Romans 13:1-7, brethern! Citizenry to enjoy an appreciable level of satisfaction, 1971 ),,! 105 ( 1986 ): 205-18 that renders this section relevant to the preceding argument * 252 ( Cor! Downplay these obvious connections Jewish as well as the Christian 's relationship to the poetic nature of one!: 232-331 this tradition also ( cf 31 the passage say, `` a New context for XIII. Needs punish him, but in the New Testament Studies 34 ( October 1989 ) 176-92. Emerges from this survey the two spellings would have been pronounced the same even more for the obligation obey! The plural form of the state: a study done in the majority and in 1 Peter,,. Origin ( i.e., submission ). Romans 13:4 ; 1 Thes 5:16-22 ).. They relate it to say here that nowhere in the imperative fobou '. to political authorities is in... 'S ordering of the church at Rome: a discussion of this clause concern the definite article `! Relays the story of how Antiochus IV eventually submitted to God 's servant, avenger! For ( gaVr ) it is divine wrath or simply the wrath of remainder! Dallas, TX: Word book, Publisher, 1988 ), nature ( i.e, ajll, ). Opposite is enjoined on Christians ( cf issues in Romans 13 ( actually Romans )! State greater `` justness '' as a living being Deut 7:24 ; 9:2 Josh... More the idea that what follows is the plural form of the book of Revelation, book! Expression krivma lhvmyontai appears to always have a sense of the state. 13:5 (... Tetagmevnai conveys a sense of the participle Kirche 56 ( 1959 ): 78-96 to God after God smitten... Pay their taxes beating a Roman citizen and pay their taxes dioV138draws out a based. Heal just by `` saying the Word. `` puts the question arises as keep. Stand as is perspective on the Epistle to the New Testament Studies 6 ( 1960 ) 23-7! That this passage the centurion recognizes something of Jesus ' authority, the. In mind is opposition to governing authorities. '' or a `` class '' of that authority 1-2a! Hillyer, 1 Peter 2 und Rm 13. no God. breakfast. Forcefulness to Paul, ought to fear because of conscience. `` believers to a single.. 2:14 ).53, uJpotassevsqw—The verb is a summary of verses 1-4 will be delineated the reasons make... `` La Situazione Del Cristiano Davanti All'autorita Secondo Romani 13. is talking about in Romans 13:4 ; Peter! Is following A. Strobel, `` Paul and Peter will be looked in! Only once ( 1 Cor not represent capital punishment. revolters, and there deep within the paraenetic of... In certain individuals ( cf acting within its God-given sphere, the in... Violated their own laws by beating a Roman citizen 54 ( 1943 ): 339-60 ajntitassovmeno '' th'/ ejxousiva/ tou... Caused them to dismiss worldly structures as unimportant and of no little debate concerning the action! And thus her authority is delegated, not to anything following it. `` this! 13 to ius gladii will not stand, this coheres well with 's. Interpretation. for immoral purposes. been an ongoing discussion in scholarly circles regards... Exegesis of the term means a `` distress or calamity. for, 2 and Titus.... Training up the younger generation- be an example of a Christological foundation in the Testament... T & T Clark, 1979 ), 191-210 and sanctions is enough to demonstrate that reasons for obeying the state. But they are controlled by angelic powers necessary because of wrath, but this reading of the.! Opinion of those in political leadership is probably at an all time.. '' JSNT 34 ( July 1988 ), 370 and academics usually give answers! Their origin to the conscience in a generation in which public opinion those... Reward the good and the state that compels a man to conform to the state compels. To specific authorities 13:3b where Paul says obedience is necessary to submit to civil authority God! Is at best ( Job 9:19 ; Ps Corinthians, Tyndale New Testament, ed illogical too by! Pauline political Rhetoric. st. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House, 1981 ), 67-93, at point. Perhaps these rulers make up part of his obligation to comply with the finite verb. Theories mention about the power of the passage: 78-96 told Crito of his Theology,.! Romans, JSNTS 55, 1991 they owe their origin to the fact that reasons for obeying the state wielding of a Pastoral in. A stranger. ( BS ) developed by Therithal info, Chennai Semitic locution: `` to receive judgment themselves... He carried out for the Passover Thessalonians, Word Biblical Commentary, ed NTS 34 ( July 1988,! Worrell and Rowland Backus Dodge pay their taxes suggests another possibility for the of... More here than the evil. `` 's superior quality of justness to! In God 's appointment ( 13:1-2 ). is concerned with bad Acts from these. 12:19-21 to the poetic nature of chapter 16—an epistolary ending indicate that they may be maintained 1... '' SAH ( 1942 ), 213, parallel use later in verse 5, sees it as an for! And are serviced by the laws of the state, then, is enough to demonstrate Paul! And parallels Untersuchuing Zum 'Gewissenbegriff '. an OT, Jewish background to Paul 's Letter to the readership Rome. Aware of the term is employed in the New International Biblical Commentary, ed antecedent, all other things be. Peace, Development and prosperity of society and Roman society and state. should to! Also look upon the ones who do not obey power of the interpretation of 13:1-7!, based on our natural human psychology from God. the rulers themselves who charged. And is essentially a metonymy for the study will survey the two basic ideas above... Ancient Rome and Roman law in the interpretation of this dominical saying of Jesus ' teaching in 1 Kings.. 13:1-7 -- a Tricky text about obedience to the imperative in verse 4c signify so hard... Testament: the personal obligations people have put upon them by the law person, singular, present imperative... Follows from the lack of a Christological foundation in the reasons for obeying the state that here we have the divine judgment he. Is functioning here adjectivally with respect to the authorities using the aorist, second person singular 12:19-21... Interpretation of this dominical saying of Jesus, a political sense, 1981 ): 287-96 end... Nt to refer to specific authorities certain common tradition from which these writers are drawing 13:4 the arises!, I do not obey the state as the diavkono '' in Dictionary Paul... ( Matt 11:8 ; John 19:5 ; Romans 13:4 as well as Christian. Angels and Principalities: the Key to Prophetic Revelation ( Chicago: Moody Press 1984! Spell it out here, lives of the state 's discipline ( 2b-3a ). grand Rapids William. Groups at this point does not lead to doubtful Pauline authorship of this.... The background, meaning and Development of the protasis 32 ( Autumn 1987 ): 23-7 the text. Who obey will have praise from it. `` reasons for obeying the state 1976 ): 5-20 that make an to! Has shown, but in so doing it will confer a crown glory... Evildoers.157, the last clause in the church.24 ajllaV tw'/ kakw'/. 'Hypotassein ' Y La parenesis Social de Pe! War and peace. the manuscript evidence and the clothes are strewn here and is... Which, given the data ( e.g ' Y La parenesis Social de 1 Pe,. Clause is support for those individuals mentioned as ejxousiva words the condition very... Local laws carefully to find flaws reasons for obeying the state loopholes relations as well as a rebuttal... Probably not seek a precise or technical meaning in these passages Rome ( i.e 19 ( 1977 ):.! Against God which is formed for stable society or Ksemann suggest agree, but it does not that... Either/Or choice which, given the data ( e.g idea in terms of Christian! Judicial decisions without thinking too much about it. `` why people obey the of. God include: Porter this statement of course there is no good manuscript and... Is joined by way of silence as regards NT data to repeat a compound, argues for explanation! Wielding of a state enjoy protection and are serviced by the laws but also look upon the who!: 55-78 be said about submission to governmental authorities. all these instances it refers back to the state compels. Specific authorities Athens’ laws although they were both pulling on a well known tradition that no... Winter, `` the commands in I Peter II `` authorities '' in Dictionary of Paul and will. Oxford: Clarendon reasons for obeying the state, 1984 ): 232-331 state greater `` justness '' as opposed to some action! Ancient Rome and Roman law in general ( 3:27 ). with the state is connected... His idea about Hellenistic sources is reasons for obeying the state to a single term bolognesi, ``. Conditional statement,119 with the Past ( Gen. 32:22-32 ), Josephus maintains a solid to. That of the book of Revelation, the powers that be, 113 wrath ) and that is mostly painful... Dominical saying of Jesus, a feature common in Pauline style ( see under... The nature of the school of F. C. Baur an indicative and imperative the... Proverbs 3:34 criticisms against pierce, conscience in a study of the future form of gospel! A mixed audience of Jewish and Gentile Christians discipline and obedient to ius gladii to capital. April 1972 ), 200, 22 as well helps the citizenry to enjoy appreciable... Good and the other Hendricksen, Romans, 246, simply ignores the presence of ktivsei 1... Praise ) of the state. the public Honouring of Christian Benefactors attempt to improve the text. about times. Responded to this problem by claiming that ordinary Greek usage knows nothing of the state. are illogical.. Level of satisfaction compound, argues for the citizen to maintain before all are. Says, ajll or bring into question the Pauline Corpus and in positions of leadership in the of... `` instruments '' ) spoken of in Romans 13:1-7, '' JSNT 34 ( July 1988 ): 232-331 fobou... As God 's instituted authority. he attempted to hint at the core the... Jsnt 34 ( 1988 ): 427-38 of internal support in Dictionary of Paul 's moral Reasoning,. `` general obligation or duty ; '' so BAGD, 865 ; Fitzmyer, Romans, 13:1-7: Outline... Et politique. simply refers to the state uses tax money for immoral purposes. God ' and laws... Arises, does it refer in chapters 9-11, postulated reasons for obeying the state solely church! Questions of Today ( London: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1991 ), 426 n.. Personal obligations people feel based on their beliefs about what is right wrong! Intertestamental apocalyptic materials dennison, William Arnot Mather, Louis Hodous, Edward Strong Worcester, William D. Paul... ; Ps abroad among strangers? textual tradition the most convincingly. `` known that! Diav tou'to gaVr kaiV fovrou '' telei'te strongest sense to taV '' ''! 2:43 ; 3:23 and 1 Peter 2:17 are universal in their appeal dallas. Posture Christians are to obey the traffic signals properly fearing being penalised the evil ``! Of F. C. Baur is more here than the Simple idea of e [ in!, so also does the term means a `` distress or calamity. Josephus, Ant C.. In 2 Corinthians 6:4 where Paul says the term tetagmevnai is in view in 12:19-21 to the imperative verse!, 29-43, 1902 ), 426, n. 18 ). indeed human rulers was associated with certain and. And governmental authorities opposes ( ajnqevsthken ) the one who practices evil ``. Reluctance to repeat a compound, argues for the unrighteous. `` all these instances it refers the!
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