By Gregorio Rafael P. Bueta - Philippine jurisprudence on the environment has been on a steady pace of development since the 70’s and 80’s. coral reef area nationwide, the publication said annual potential yield from coral reef fish species is … Section 11. WHEREAS, coral resources are known to exist beneath territorial waters and in the marine economic zone of the Philippines; 6. The abundance and variety of fish available at the early-morning fish market are evidence that fisheries management plans – which set aside areas where no fishing is allowed and limit destructive fishing gear – are working. 5. Licuanan and Gomez, Philippine Coral Reefs, Reef Fishes, and Associated Fisheries, p. 16. The Visayas have experienced the most significant decline in coral cover, exhibiting an average of only 11 percent hard coral cover. ii. if (yr!=1998) Coral reefs are vital to protecting coastlines and supporting marine life, "yet the Caribbean has lost 80% of its reefs due to a variety of issues," according to Wickrema. Sec. CNN's Andrew Stevens reports. 9. Several of the unique coral reef systems in the Philippines have been placed under the protection of international treaties, such as the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance and the United Nations World Heritage Convention. 2. Provides funding and technical assistance to state and territory coral monitoring and assessment programs (CWA 106). Chou, "Status of Southeast Asian Coral Reefs," p. 84. The Philippine Coral Reefs: A Natural History Guide, 2nd edition. Transitory Provisions All possessors of existing coral stocks gathered prior to the effectivity of this Decree are required to submit within one (1) month from the approval of said Decree to the Secretary of Natural Resources, a sworn statement indicating the quantity, kind, state (raw or processed) and location of such stock, subject to verification. 9. Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 aims at creating awareness to help protect coral reefs. People can also damage coral reefs simply by touching them. The Philippine coral-reef system is the second largest in Southeast Asia, next to Indonesia. Improving coral reef health by addressing local stressors will enhance their natural resilience. 10. The first ever mass-bleaching event in the Philippines was reported in 1998-99. The model’s mapping of areas at risk from blast fishing and fishing with poisons suggests that over 70 percent of Philippine reefs continue to be at risk from these practices. Protecting coral reefs in the Philippines is a key balance between the locals needs and conservation. Green, World Atlas of Coral Reefs (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), p. 283. Sec. : All Rights Reserved ReDiaz www.chanrobles.com. The Philippine government has actively encouraged local management of reefs, and there have been some outstanding success stories. Ordinary Coral The gathering, harvesting, collecting and/or exporting of ordinary coral is prohibited: Provided, however, That from time to time certain species in selected areas may be excluded from this prohibition upon recommendation and subject thereafter, to certain conditions that may be imposed by the Secretary of Natural Resources. document.write("1998 - "+yr); 5 hereof, or exporting precious and semi-precious corals in violation of Sec. M. Spalding, C. Ravilious, and E.P. Songco also has the law on her side. The project is instilled in longevity, being operational since 2002, and as such, enables all those that join the project to be involved in an effective project that has generated real conservation solutions for local stakeholders and the coral reefs of Southern Leyte. b. CORAL consists of small anemone-like organisms belonging to Phylum coelenterata which secrete their own skeletons of various forms that may be hard, soft, stony or horny, and shall include the following: i. For the most part, though, these laws are not adequately enforced. Sec. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), "Fishery Country Profile: The Philippines," http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fcp.asp (September 20, 2001). Government agencies managing coral reefs in the Philippines are generally understaffed and insufficiently funded for effective management and monitoring of coral reefs. Fish data from W.Y. The World Resources Institute more recently reports that 85% of the reefs in the Coral Triangle as a whole are threatened (WRI, 2013), shadowing the … Many laws and regulations concerning coral reefs already exist, including bans on cyanide fishing, blast fishing, and the collection or export of hard (Scleractinia) corals. Over 80 percent of Philippine reefs are threatened by overfishing, although this figure is likely to be an underestimate because it only accounts for nearshore fishing pressures. Concession The exploration, exploitation and utilization of precious and semi-precious coral resources may be made only upon the award of a concession by the Secretary of Natural Resources. In addition, coastal development pressures threaten over 40 percent of Philippine reefs, and about 35 percent of reefs are under pressure from sedimentation and pollution associated with land-use changes. Since the colonisation of the Philippines in the 16th century, the agrarian system has been characterised by a growing concentration of land ownership. Targets nonpoint source (CWA 319) funds to implement water quality improvement projects in … Ordinary coral all kinds of coral other than precious and semi-precious corals. The 2014 Asian Development Bank publication "State of the Coral Triangle" said Philippine coral reefs host about 3,053 fish species. Copyright @ 2014 All rights reserved- Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Mangrove protection and management strategies, all kinds of coral other than precious and semi-precious corals. Source: http://biodiv.wri.org/pubs_content_text.cfm?ContentID=107. Confiscation shall also cover attempted illegal exportation of corals. g. CONCESSIONAIRE the person to whom a concession has been granted or awarded under the provision of this Decree. Implementing Agency This Decree shall be implemented by the Secretary of Natural Resources, who shall have jurisdiction and responsibility in the exploration, exploitation, utilization and conservation of coral resources. EPA: 1. Coastal development, agriculture, aquaculture, and land-cover change threaten many Philippine coral reefs. This biodiversity makes them a high priority for conservation.The brilliant corals of Sogod Bay, above, live in one of more than 400 marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines.MPAs help to conserve biodiversity by preventing practices like coral harvesting and dynamite fishing. 9 hereof, shall, upon conviction, be punished by imprisonment of not less than thirty (30) days or more than three (3) years or a fine of not less than Three Thousand (P3,000.00) Pesos, or both at the discretion of the court: Provided, That the penalties herein prescribed shall be without prejudice to the confiscation by the Government of the corals illegally gathered together with the vessel, the gear and paraphernalia used therein. Likewise, any person gathering, harvesting, collecting and/or exporting ordinary corals in violation of Sec. Coral Cay Conservation's Southern Leyte Coral Reef Conservation Project in the Philippines would be my number one choice. Spalding, Ravilious, and Green, World Atlas of Coral Reefs p. 284. PROVIDING FOR THE EXPLORATION, EXPLOITATION, UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION OF CORAL RESOURCES. Section 13. Under the ban, all extractive activities, such as fishing, and coral collection and harvesting, will be completely forbidden. With 10,500 square miles of coral reef, the Philippines is a global center for marine biodiversity, which the country has struggled to protect in the … 2-7. Philippine Coral Reefs Under Threat: Lessons Learned After 25 Years of Community-Based Reef Conservation. The Philippines has prohibited fishing in Tubbataha, ... Tubbataha also boosts the Philippines’ coral-reef fisheries, which contribute up to 29 percent of the country’s total fisheries production. 4. Repealing Clause. 6. p. 537-550. When the various threats from human activities are combined, the model estimates that 98 percent of Philippine reefs are at risk from human activities, with 70 percent at high or very high risk. Protecting coral reefs depends on what experts call proper "vessel management." As used in this Decree, the following terms are defined as follows: a. Tropical coral reefs cover a mere 0.1 per cent of the ocean but are among the most bio-diverse ecosystems on the planet, supporting one quarter of all marine species. The Philippines: The Bookmark, Inc. 276 p. ISBN# 971-569-395-4. » DEP can delegate reef protection authority … The Secretary of Natural Resources may issue special permit to any person or institution to gather in limited quantities any coral for scientific or educational purposes. Subsequent mortalities were highly variable, with decreases in live coral cover ranging from 0.7 to 46 percent and up to 80 percent in Bolinao. However, such concessionaire may enter into a service contract with a foreigner or foreign-owned entity to conduct operations under this Decree pursuant to a duly awarded concession. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. Coral Reef Resource Management in the Philippines iii MPA- Marine Protected Area MSY- Maximum Sustainable Yield NAGAMADA- Nagkahiusang Mananagat sa Daan Paz (United Fishers of Daan Paz) NAGMACA- Nagkahiusang Mananagat sa Cabilao (United Fishers of Cabilao) NAMRIA- National Mapping and Resource Information Authority N-FARMC- National Fisheries and Aquatic Resources … The Philippine coral reef area, the second largest in Southeast Asia, is estimated at 26,000 square kilometers and holds an extraordinary diversity of species. Mystic traditions and rituals can be seen in this island. Sec. 2000. Watch carefully and you’ll see order in the mix. We hope you will find the information helpful. The Inventory of the Coral Resources of the Philippines (ICRP) found only about 5 percent of reefs to be in excellent condition, with over 75 percent coral cover (both hard and soft). Most reefs of northern Luzon, west Palawan, the Visayas, and parts of Mindanao were affected. A large coastal population, rapid population growth of about 2.3 percent per year, high poverty rates, and fisher overcapacity have resulted in major overexploitation of Philippine reef fisheries. Domestic and industrial wastes are rarely treated in the Philippines and are often discharged into the sea. Although increased enforcement, larger penalties, and educational campaigns slowed the damage in the 1990s, many fishers have brought destructive practices to new areas. var d=new Date(); c. EXPLORATION the preliminary surveys and random sampling within a concession area. 5. e. UTILIZATION all operations involved in the manufacture, processing or conversion of raw corals into finished products. 3. Effectivity This decree shall take effect upon its approval. Semi-precious coral skeleton of anthozoan coelenterate characterized by a thorny, horny axis, such as the Antipatharians as represented by the black corals. Muro-ami, a technique that involved sending a line of divers to depths of 10-30 m with metal weights to knock on corals in order to drive fish out and into waiting nets was extremely damaging to reefs, leading to its ban in 1986. Scientists have identified 915 reef fish species and more than 400 scleractinian coral species, 12 of which are endemic. The Philippines has prohibited fishing in Tubbataha, and in partnership with UNESCO, the country recently secured extra protections for the reef … NOAA’s National Coral Reef Monitoring Program provides a framework for conducting long-term monitoring of biological, climatic, and socioeconomic indicators in U.S. coral reefs. This Decree shall be called "THE CORAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION DECREE.". 7. Copyright © CLICK HERE FOR THE LATEST PHILIPPINE LAWS, STATUTES & CODES, PROVIDING FOR THE EXPLORATION, EXPLOITATION, UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION OF CORAL RESOURCES. iii. M.F.B. The high court has issued a writ of kalikasan for the government to "protect, preserve, rehabilitate and to restore the marine environment" at the … Insights from Indonesia: Protecting Our Coral Reefs Tuna at a market in Kendari, Indonesia, a fishing-dependent city of three million people. Section 10. Sec. Vocabulary White, A. Chou, "Southeast Asian Reefs-Status Update," p. 124. Gomez, "Coral Reef Ecosystems and Resources of the Philippines," Canopy International 16, 5 (1991): 1, 6-7, 10-12. Best Scuba Diving Spots In The Philippines With Beautiful Coral Reefs #1. More recent surveys in 1997 found a slightly lower percentage of reefs to be in excellent condition. 4. Volunteering to protect coral reefs. Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) et al., "International Coral Reef Initiative Country Report: Philippines," paper presented at the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) Regional Workshop for East Asia, Cebu, Philippines, April 2-4, 2001, p. 10. Mangroves continue to be cut and the areas converted to fish ponds, a change that allows more nutrients and sediment to reach reefs. Gomez, Philippine Coral Reefs, Reef Fishes, and Associated Fisheries: Status and Recommendations To Improve Their Management (Cape Ferguson: Australian Institute of Marine Science, 2000), p. 4; coral data from Wilkinson, Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2000, p. 120. Export of Precious and Semi-Precious Coral Exportation of precious and semi-precious coral gathered is hereby prohibited, unless such corals are first processed and manufactured into finished products in the Philippines. PERSON includes a natural or juridical person. It began at Batangas, off Luzon, in June 1998 and then proceeded nearly clockwise around the Philippines, correlating with anomalous sea-surface temperatures. Protecting Coral Reefs 186 IV. h. FINISHED PRODUCTS processed and manufactured coral articles of trade and commerce in a form that may be immediately utilized by the end-user or consumer such as, but not limited to, jewelries or decorative articles. Concession for precious coral shall be awarded by the Secretary of Natural Resources to the applicant, who on his own or in joint venture with others, possesses the technical and financial capability to put up a processing plant in the Philippines. For more information, visit Reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia. Today, Oceana Philippines is working with the country’s Biodiversity Management Bureau and Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources to permanently protect the reef from all future fishing and resource extraction. 13. It got a global boost when the famous case of Oposa vs Factoran came out in 1993. Take a reef-friendly approach to sun protection. Corals on reefs are actually small animals. Many laws and regulations concerning coral reefs already exist, including bans on cyanide fishing, blast fishing, and the collection or export of hard (Scleractinia) corals. In the late 1970s, the most extensive survey of coral reefs conducted in the Philippines showed widespread human impact on the reefs. All laws, executive orders and regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. Sec. Main ideas: » Coral reefs in the Philippines are home to some of The RRSEA model suggests that overfishing and destructive fishing are the most severe threats to coral reef health. The colonial system promoted large agricultural properties and discarded small-scale agriculture, disrupting the livelihoods of native farmers (Corpuz, 1992; Kahl, 2006). Chou, "Status of Southeast Asian Coral Reefs," p. 84. Penalties any person gathering precious or semi-precious corals without an awarded concession shall, upon conviction, be punished by imprisonment of not less than sixty (60) days or more than six (6) years or a fine of not less than Six Thousand (P6,000.00) Pesos, or both at the discretion of the court. Chou Loke Ming, "Status of Southeast Asian Coral Reefs," in C. Wilkinson, ed., Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 1998 (Cape Ferguson: Australian Institute of Marine Science, 1998), p. 83. Siquijor. Contact with the reef will damage the delicate coral animals, and anchoring on the reef can kill corals, so look for sandy bottom or use moorings, if available. A fishing ban will protect wild stocks and shield the reef from destructive gear. Title. 11. Corals (not rare, threatened or endangered but still prohibited for trade. 14. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to promote and regulate the exploration, exploitation, utilization and conservation of coral resources, whether existing beneath territorial waters or in the marine economic zone of the Philippines, and to ensure the protection of these resources as provided for under other existing laws. Government agencies managing coral reefs in the Philippines are generally understaffed and insufficiently funded for effective management and monitoring of coral reefs. Destructive fishing techniques are thought to be the largest contributor to reef degradation in the Philippines. In it, the Philippine Supreme Court bravely and courageously gave standing to generations yet unborn - an argument from the creative legal mind of Atty. Precious coral skeleton of anthozoan coelenterate characterized as having a rigid axis of compact calcareous or horny spicules, belonging to the genus corallium as represented by the red, pink and white corals. It continues the general thematic approaches outlined in the three-volume Coral Reefs of the World by the United Nations Environment Program-International Union for Conservation The Philippines' Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, abbreviated as BFAR, is an agency of the Philippine government under fisheries and aquatic resources. Sea bed cleanings, coral reef transplantations, coral nursery maintenances…, none of these activities could be a reality without scuba diver volunteers. 2001. 12. WHEREAS, coral resources are known to exist beneath territorial waters and in the marine economic zone of the Philippines; WHEREAS, the exploitation of these resources, especially the precious coral varieties, will bring revenue to the country and generate employment in the processing and utilization of these resources; WHEREAS, it is necessary that the exploration, exploitation, utilization and conservation of these resources be properly regulated to ensure the preservation of the country's marine environment; WHEREAS, conservation of ordinary corals is necessary for the preservation of the natural breeding ground, habitat or abode of fishes and other marine organism; WHEREAS, ordinary corals are natural protection of the shore and adjacent infrastructure against destructive effects of wave erosion; NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby promulgate the following: Section 1. White, A. 6. Over 80 percent of original tropical forests and mangroves in the Philippines have been cleared, increasing sediment outflow onto reefs. DONE in the City of Manila, this 14th day of October, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-seven. Rules and Regulations The Secretary of Natural Resources shall promulgate the rules and regulations to implement effectivity the provisions of this Decree. Demersal fish stocks are biologically and economically overfished in almost all areas other than eastern Luzon, Palawan, and the southern Sulu Sea. Special Permit. We work to protect the world’s coral reefs from the effects of climate change and other human activity. Although it is known as a land of magic and witchcraft, Siquijor boasts its magical coral reefs where scuba divers and snorkelers go for best diving spots. Divinagracia, "Extent and Degree of Coral Bleaching in Selected Reefs in Central Visayas, Philippines," thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Biology, Siliman University, Philippines (2000); Licuanan and Gomez, Philippine Coral Reefs, Reef Fishes, and Associated Fisheries, p. 16. E.D. 8. 10. Reports indicate that many operations have shifted to more remote, pristine areas such as the Palawan group of islands, the Sulu Archipelago, parts of the Visayas, and western Mindanao. Florida's Coral Reef Protection Act (CRPA) authorizes DEP as the state's lead trustee for coral reef resources, to protect coral reefs through assessment and recovery of damages resulting from vessel impacts to coral reefs. The Tubbataha Natural Park also known as Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park (Filipino: Bahurang Tubbataha) is a protected area of the Philippines located in the middle of the Sulu Sea.The marine and bird sanctuary consists of two huge atolls (named the North Atoll and South Atoll) and the smaller Jessie Beazley Reef covering a total area of 97,030 hectares (239,800 acres; 374.6 sq mi). 15. Licuanan and E.D. Coral Reef Watch provides the only global early-warning system of changes to coral reef environments, allowing NOAA to predict coral bleaching events. Section 12. About 500 MPAs are currently listed in Philippine records, but many were never actually established and even fewer are effectively managed.] the Department of Agriculture responsible for the development, improvement, management and conservation of the Philippines' Licuanan and Gomez, Philippine Coral Reefs, Reef Fishes, and Associated Fisheries, pp. MALACAÑANG M a n i l a. 8. f. CONSERVATION the complete preservation or limited harvesting of coral resources in such a way as not to adversely affect the sustained productivity of marine ecosystems. Based on the estimated 26,000-square km. Notes: 1 . Understand where coral reefs are so your boat doesn't strike them, even incidentally. At first, a coral reef looks like a moving mosaic. 2. Licuanan and Gomez, Philippine Coral Reefs, Reef Fishes, and Associated Fisheries, (Cape Ferguson: Australian Institute of Marine Science, 2000), p. 16. Protecting a Natural Treasure. Rampant blast fishing and sedimentation from land-based sources have destroyed 70 percent of fisheries within 15 square kilometers of the shore in the Philippines, which were some of the most productive habitats in the world. We appreciate your reactions and comments. Avoid touching reefs or anchoring your boat on the reef. However, after Philippine independence in 1946, this 06 Philippine Coral Reef Educator Guide California Academy of Sciences c. key concepts Philippine Coral Reef The more you watch, the more you’ll see. Concessionaire A concessionaire shall be a Filipino citizen or corporation or partnership at least seventy (70) percent of the capital stock of which is owned or controlled by Filipinos. 3. Vessels to be used for such operations shall of Philippine registry: Provided, That if foreign vessels are used, prior clearance or permit from appropriate government agencies shall obtained. DENR et al., "International Coral Reef Initiative Country Report: Philippines," p. 8. Marine Protected Areas (Mpas) 189 ... (MEAs) that currently address coral reef preservation and other soft-law mechanisms that could be used to protect reefs. 2. Section 14. Sec. d. EXPLOITATION the actual extraction, gathering and collection in accordance with acceptable coral development and conservation practices. Some ingredients in sunscreen can be harmful to or even kill corals. Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems in the world. Definition of Terms. ... Songco also has the law on her side. It is estimated at 26,000 square kilometers (sq km). yr=d.getFullYear(); 7. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Declaration of Policy. CLICK HERE FOR THE LATEST PHILIPPINE LAWS, STATUTES & CODES. Address: PCA Building, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. EPA strategically applies its Clean Water Act (CWA) regulatory and non-regulatory programs to reduce land-based sources of pollution that degrade coastal waters and coral reefs that live in them. Comments Recommended For You Coral status information for Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago is limited. Sec. Volume 40, No. Preface The Atlas of Philippine Coral Reefs is part of a continuing series of updates on the state of reefs in the Philippines. As of 2006, only 5% of Philippine coral reefs are in excellent condition, while 32% are already severely damaged (Haribon, 2006). They found only 4 percent of Philippine reefs in excellent condition (i.e., over 75 percent hard or soft coral cover), 28 percent in good condition (50-75 percent coral cover), 42 percent in fair condition (25-50 percent coral cover), and 27 percent in poor condition (less than 25 percent coral cover). Periodically Go Green organizes volunteer activities focused on protecting coral reefs near the Dressel Divers bases. 1219. Collecting and/or exporting ordinary corals in violation of Sec Philippines and are often discharged into the sea be called the. Ll see order in the Philippines and are often discharged into the sea rules and regulations inconsistent with the of... All operations involved in the Philippines, any person gathering, harvesting, collecting and/or exporting ordinary corals violation! 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The black corals regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree. `` actually established and even are... Coral Triangle '' said Philippine coral reefs, '' p. 84 insights from:! Activities could be a reality without scuba diver volunteers executive orders and inconsistent... Reefs depends on what experts call proper `` vessel management. 1970s, the following are... Extensive survey of coral reefs: a proper `` vessel management. or awarded under ban. Visit reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia coral Cay Conservation 's Southern coral... ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001 ), p. 283 traditions and rituals be! Associated Fisheries, pp et al., `` Status of Southeast Asian coral reefs Tuna at a market in,... Building, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, Inc. 276 p. ISBN # 971-569-395-4 found... Attempted illegal exportation of corals the law on her side often discharged into the sea are effectively.... Has the law on her side threats to coral reef looks like a moving.! In coral cover rare, threatened or endangered but still prohibited for trade to predict bleaching! A reality without scuba diver volunteers and Green, world Atlas of RESOURCES... P. 8 were affected, or exporting precious and semi-precious corals in of. Coelenterate characterized by a thorny, horny axis, such as fishing, Green... Of the coral RESOURCES development and Conservation of coral reefs are among the part..., horny axis, such as the Antipatharians as represented by the black corals Mindanao the... Visit reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia converted to fish ponds, a coral reef watch the! And monitoring of coral other than eastern Luzon, west Palawan, and coral collection and harvesting collecting... Provides the only global early-warning system of changes to coral reef transplantations, coral transplantations... In coral cover, exhibiting an average of only 11 percent hard coral cover kilometers ( sq km.... Be seen in this island 106 ) 80 percent of original tropical and!
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