It would be nicer to just have one, than can be passed either an int or a string and do the right thing. Why would it suddenly be "nicer" to have one is not exactly clear to me. Polymorphism is a powerful yet potentially confusing feature of C++. One the object is created, you send it away it live on its own as an abstract object that exhibits polymorphic behavior. This is similar to what a C++ compiler will do for you under the hood when overloading parameters for a function. Polymorphism is a Greek word, meaning \"one name many forms\". Since C isn’t an OOP, C does not have any concept of polymorphism. Polymorphism gives the different function to the operators or methods. You’ve completely misunderstood how an entity component system works (Don’t stress… lots of people get this wrong. Use MathJax to format equations. To get well acquainted with the concept we’re going to discuss its subtopics along with some real-life examples and codes too. Perhaps if this is what you need for your project, C++ is a better solution? For someone who is new to OOP it can be a bit hard at the first to grasp the last 3 of the basic concepts of OOP (since Inheritance is a bit easy understand). In C#, there are two types of polymorphism - compile-time polymorphism and run time polymorphism. Viewed 248 times 2. Is there any way that I can simulate polymorphism in C? So in general in an OOP language, you’d have. In c#, Polymorphism means providing an ability to take more than one form and it’s one of the main pillar concepts of object-oriented programming, after encapsulation and inheritance. 1 \$\begingroup\$ This code snippet is a research attempt to find means for dealing with dynamic polymorphism (in C): two or more related "classes" share a common interface. This isn’t C++; you can’t overload names easily and shouldn’t try too hard to. Polymorphism is often referred to as the third pillar of object-oriented programming, after encapsulation and inheritance. Your object pointer is roughly equivalent to a C++ "virtual base class". Runtime polymorphism is also known as late data binding or dynamic polymorphism. 2) Dynamic Polymorphism: In dynamic polymorphism, the response to the function is decided at run time. Polymorphism saves the programmer a lot of time in re-creating code. Simulating dynamic polymorphism in C. 0. polymorphism with object ArrayList. polymorphism begins after object's creation. Can I build a wheel with two different spoke types? Practical example, How to use alternate flush mode on toilet. I.e. Show us an example maybe? Lectures by Walter Lewin. Polymorphism. In general, the question "how do I do OOP in C" can be answered by looking at what C++ does and then slavishly copying it. rev 2020.12.8.38142, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Code Review Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us, Podcast 293: Connecting apps, data, and the cloud with Apollo GraphQL CEO…, MAINTENANCE WARNING: Possible downtime early morning Dec 2, 4, and 9 UTC…, Custom shapes objects using polymorphism in JavaScript, Polymorphism with overrides and base calls simulating an employee. How do I know the switch is layer 2 or layer 3? It can be a call, a text message, a picture message, mail, etc. We need to create a table of function pointers. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. If you still want to have a single "create" function, you could have it take in an enum indicating the type you want to create, and a union containing the data. Green striped wire placement when changing from 3 prong to 4 on dryer. Why do you want to have one function? Any Java object that can pass more than one IS-A test is considered to be polymorphic… In this article, I am going to give you a brief introduction to Polymorphism in C#.Please read our previous where we discussed Abstract Class and Abstract Methods in C# with Examples. Here is a real life example of polymorphism: A man generally behaves like teacher in a classroom, father or son in home and as a normal customer in a market. Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. In static polymorphism, the response to a function is determined at the compile time. In C++ polymorphism is mainly divided into two types: Compile time Polymorphism; Runtime Polymorphism; Compile time polymorphism: This type of polymorphism is achieved by function overloading or operator overloading. Polymorphism is one of the principle of object oriented programming. Next let us see runtime polymorphism. In other words, one object has many forms or has one name with multiple functionalities. Polymorphism Before getting into this section, it is recommended that you have a proper understanding of pointers and class inheritance. Polymorphism provides the ability to a class to have multiple implementations with the same name. Do they emit light of the same energy? I have to deal with similar stuff at work, and there's no good solution. Polymorphism is a useful feature of the object oriented programming language in C++. Is it possible to calculate the Curie temperature for magnetic systems? 3. This allows us to perform a single action in different ways. I don't really want to have two "create" functions - one that passes a string in, one the passes an int. "Poly" means many and "morph" means forms hence the name polymorphism. By using our Services or clicking I agree, you agree to our use of cookies. And if you really want to do efficient, type-safe OOP in C, you're eventually going to have to reckon with the concepts of "copy construction" and "move construction", both of which you can find implemented in C++. In this article, I am going to discuss the most frequently asked Polymorphism Interview Questions and Answers in C#.Please read our previous article where we discussed the most frequently asked Abstract and Sealed Class Interview Questions in C# with Answers. Im static Polymorphism wird die Auswirkung mit einer Funktion bei der Zeitpunkt der Kompile bestimmt. In the above function: we store the address of each child class Rectangle and Square object in s and; then we call the get_Area() function on it,; ideally, it should have called the respective get_Area() functions of the child classes but; instead it calls the get_Area() defined in the base class. Whilst the polymorphism example is very simple, it gives you an understanding of what polymorphism is and how you could implement it in your design. polymorphism begins after object's creation. Did my 2015 rim have wear indicators on the brake surface? Compile time polymorphism is also known as early binding or late binding.Runtime polymorphism is also known as dynamic binding or late binding.. The concept of static polymorphism is similar to role of a person in specific situation. This is exactly why your desire to have one create function instead of two doesn't seem to make much sense. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. And then under-the-hood that gets rendered as, in a header, and you’ll probably want to declare the ctors as, (or intCalcNode_new(int k), but come up with some normative nomenclature to keep yourself sane.). Derived classes of Animals could be Pigs, Cats, Dogs, Birds - And they also have their own implementation of an animal sound (the pig oinks, and the cat meows, etc. Here, the functions defined for the structure Person are not encapsulated. Polymorphism is a Greek word that means "many-shaped" and it has two distinct aspects: At run time, objects of a derived class may be treated as objects of a base class in places such as method parameters and collections or arrays. Nutzen wir die Möglichkeiten der Vererbung, bieten sich folgende Klassendeklarationen an: Dabei nehmen wir an, dass Klassen Punkt und Farbemit der jeweils erforderlichen Funktionalität zur Verfügung stehen. Polymorphism and inheritance in C99. You probably don't really need the object pointer at all (since now it just points to (char *)interface + k for some known offset k), but I haven't thought about it too much. One the object is created, you send it away it live on its own as an abstract object that exhibits polymorphic behavior. (see http://www.cs.rit.edu/~ats/books/ooc.pdf). The point of components is not to add all this behavior to entities. It is one of the most important concepts of object-oriented programming. Actually there is no concept of polymorphism in C. Polymorphism is a property of Object Oriented Programming. 0. We simply have multiple "create" functions. In this article, you'll learn wh… If you want to make polymorphic factories that produce polymorphic objects with single or generated parameters, that’s also rull easy but probably not what you want. Polymorphism uses those methods to perform different tasks. For example: Circle c = shape as Circle; If(c!= null) c.FillCircle(); Conclusion . Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Polymorphism is a way to call different functions […] Polymorphism is a concept achieved in the object oriented programming languages like C#, where an operator or a functional method can take more than one form throughout the execution process. Polymorphism means "many forms", and it occurs when we have many classes that are related to each other by inheritance. Polymorphism is almost entirely about what happens after the object has been initialized, and in fact most languages/schemes are neurotically careful with pre-constructed or post-destructed memory because of the chaos that results otherwise. You can, of course, merge two functions into one, by passing the type as a synType parameter and using a uintptr_t parameter as a universal "data" value, but this is just syntactic sugar. This still requires you define two functions for each parameter type. No, actually, you have to have two different dedicated creation methods for int and for strings. And it has nothing to do with any polymorphism. The communication mode you choose could be anything. Here's my preferred way to do it: C Object Oriented Programming. In short: put a function pointer in your struct to create a virtual function. This is a complex solution and still requires that you define different functions for the two parameter types. Why is my half-wave rectifier output in mV when the input is AC 10Hz 100V? In dynamic polymorphism, it is decided at run-time. Cookies help us deliver our Services. If you want to make behaviors polymorphic, that’s rull easy. This allows us to perform a single action in different ways. If you have makeCalcNode(0), then that could be the integer 0 or a NULL pointer 0, and there’s no way to tell what the caller intended unless they give you an explicit cast, in which case you may as well just make different ctors. Polymorphism Interview Questions and Answers in C#. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. Here is my best shot: Your approach has at least two unfortunate aspects: The first problem could be solved by allocating the "object data" directly after the "interface data", with allowances for alignment/padding: The second problem could be solved by storing all your function pointers away in a static data table: one table per object type, instead of one table per object instance. The constructor new_Person()will set the values of the function pointers to point to the appropriate function… Polymorphism in C++ is basically the ability for data to be processed or represented in more than one form. Suppose there is a 50 watt infrared bulb and a 50 watt UV bulb. Polymorphism means the ability to take different forms. Final note on this: The value 0 fucks up any chance you have of making a single ctor a good idea. In Brexit, what does "not compromise sovereignty" mean? \"Poly\" means many and \"morph\" means forms. This tutorial discusses polymorphism at a high level in C#. How do I interpret the results from the distance matrix? For example, you have a smartphone for communication. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Das ist ein Aspekt des Polymorphism. This is called Polymorphism. You almost certainly want separate create functions, no matter how OOPy this gets. It is widely used for the implementation of inheritance in the program, and this is categorized into two methods, namely Operator overloading and function overloading. For example, think of a base class called Animal that has a method called animalSound(). MathJax reference. That's where I got the idea of "vtables" here, for example. Static polymorphism with overloaded functions and templates that happens at compile time; Dynamic polymorphism with interfaces that happens in run-time. Polymorphism is considered as one of the important features of Object Oriented Programming. Introduction to Polymorphism in C#. Including Unity.) Im dynamischen Polymorphism wird es bei run-tim entschiedet Sie haben eine Asiatische Katze (AsianCat),Sie können es als eine Katze oder ein Tier nennen. If everything you are working with is rather small you should do it in a union to avoid this, as we could not. Do Magic Tattoos exist in past editions of D&D? Active 4 years ago. You have to know exactly what you are creating. Static polymorphism refers to an entity that exists in different forms simultaneously. What is an escrow and how does it work? The four basic concepts of OOP (Object Oriented Programming) are Inheritance, Abstraction, Polymorphism and Encapsulation. Who is the oldest parliamentarian (legislator) on record? (Yes, there's a concept of polymorphic creation, "virtual constructor" etc., but there's no reason to see it as relevant to your question. One more thought, you could use a tagged union and have your function look like: push(enum type t, ...) which is probably heaps simpler. I.e. You have to know exactly what you are creating. Note the above has no unions, when you are doing this, order and type size are important because the compiler will byte align. What was the source of "presidium" as used by the Soviets? (E.g., your synType field is probably the un-polymorphic sticking point of this whole exercise, and you could remove that and use a vtable instead to un-stick it.) Thus, we have seen how operators and functions can be overloaded and used to implement compile time polymorphism in C++. For representing the above class in C, we can use structures, and functions which operate on that structure as member functions. Depending on your implementation a union may improve readability when datatype matters. Live Demo 8.01x - Lect 24 - Rolling Motion, Gyroscopes, VERY NON-INTUITIVE - Duration: 49:13. (Yes, there's a concept of polymorphic creation, "virtual constructor" etc., but … How can I show that a character does something without thinking? B. Kreisen und Dreiecken, umgehen soll. So, the goal is common that is communication, but their approach is different. Is it illegal to market a product as if it would protect against something, while never making explicit claims? Denken Sie an ein Programm, das mit einfachen geometrischen Figuren, z. At the end of this article, you will understand the following polymorphism pointers in detail. You could also simulate a virtual function table and have wrapper functions that indirect to the appropriate callback. This quandry is exactly why C++ added the nullptr keyword, of which C hath none. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. It is one of the core principles of Object Oriented Programming after encapsulation and inheritance. It's not such a big deal because processing out the data you'd need in order to call the create functions is different enough that it's no extra effort to call different functions along the way. Why did DEC develop Alpha instead of continuing with MIPS? 12.2 Static Polymorphism. We use code at work that is similar to this. Generally, the polymorphism is a combination of two words, one is poly and another one is morphs. Real Life Example Of Polymorphism. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. With the proper knowledge of how memory is aligned you can quickly implement inheritance and virtual tables, and stuff noone has ever thought to do. The following is an example showing an example of dynamic polymorphism − Example. Basically, I have a stack that holds structures that should either hold a string or a variable as their member. And of course, to invoke a virtual method: So just paste in an intCalcNode- or strCalcNode-like group of structs and functions for each kind of operation/syntax?, and you can handle them in their own files, in their own ways, without needing to change the calling code except for creation (which needs to be different code anyway). Die Klasse Dreieck kann die geerbte Methode verschiebenUmüberschreiben: Bei der Klasse Kreisist nichts weiter zu tun. This code snippet is a research attempt to find means for dealing with dynamic polymorphism (in C): two or more related "classes" share a common interface. You don't want to have to write completely different modules for every possible permutation. If the cast fails, c is set to null. Polymorphism is among the three most important concepts in the object oriented programming that are inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism. So weit so gut. How could I make a logo that looks off centered due to the letters, look centered? Consider a class “Person” in C++. Why is "issued" the answer to "Fire corners if one-a-side matches haven't begun"? The only catch is that the different data types must bemembers of the same inheritance hierarchy and they must be … It's the ability to use derived classes through base class pointers and references. Polymorphism in C#. How many computers has James Kirk defeated? Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. (Hell, even in C++ you’d still have to have a separate ctor per type in the end.) You can detect what kind of doojobber you have by looking at the vtbl member of calcNode: although full dynamic-casting takes a little more involvement. Polymorphism is often referred to as the third pillar of object-oriented programming, after encapsulation and inheritance. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the C_Programming community, The subreddit for the C programming language, Press J to jump to the feed. It is achieved when the function to be invoked is known at run time. 4 thoughts on “ Simulating Multiple Inheritance in C# ” blumiere says: Monday, February 22, 2016 at 6am Your code is interesting, but your example is terrible. Thanks for contributing an answer to Code Review Stack Exchange! Like we specified in the previous chapter; Inheritance lets us inherit attributes and methods from another class. Polymorphism is not the only technique achievable by these means. Dynamic polymorphism is implemented by abstract classes and virtual functions. Polymorphism is a OOPs concept where one name can have many forms. I think that's a better option than taking in a void* or using variadic arguments. It is not related.). For implementing encapsulation, which is binding between data and functions, pointers to functions are used. Runtime polymorphism in C++. Simulating dynamic polymorphism in C. Ask Question Asked 4 years ago. Implementation of tree with different node types and faux-polymorphism in C. Hot Network Questions Leetcode valid sudoku Who will be the copyright owner of a new file in a forked repository on github? Polymorphism uses those methods to perform different tasks. If you're able to use C11, you can use the _Generic keyword in a macro. This is the whole reason C++ was invented. Polymorphism can be static or dynamic. Polymorphism assigns to codes, operations that perform differently in different contexts. Why are manufacturers assumed to be responsible in case of a crash? Hate to say it, but C did not have this kind of thing in mind. Where exactly have you seen something like that being done with one function and how? _Generic is fun until you realize how incredibly limited it is, and it’s C11 so you limit your compatibility quite a bit if you use it. The basic idea of run-time polymorphism is that at the moment of creation the object's type has to be specified explicitly. Simulating Polymorphic Operators in C++ July 3, 2007 Embedded Staff In C++, polymorphism lets a variable refer to objects of differentdata types. For … Polymorphism is the capability to use an operator or method in different ways. (I don't think I've ever written or used a function that takes a union as a parameter, but it's certainly legal.) Das kennen Sie ja alles schon... Stellen Sie sich jetz… What's wrong with two? Code Review Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for peer programmer code reviews. —note that there are different ctors for the different sub-types of calcNode, but they call into calcNode’s ctor for common init. It only takes a minute to sign up. The basic idea of run-time polymorphism is that at the moment of creation the object's type has to be specified explicitly. Once you have an intCalcNode *, you can make it into a calcNode * via super: or just make automagic static cast macros which I can give you but they can get a bit complicated xor verbose. Because of various limitations, what we ended up with were structures that had a number of function pointers in them, as well as some size and struct type information. This is called polymorphism. So when I create one of these structures to add to a stack, I want to either pass a string OR an integer (not both). Suppose you have various cats like these felines, Since they are all of Felidae biological family, and they all should be able to meow, they can be represented as classes inheriting from Felid base class and overriding the meowpure virtual function, Now the main program can use Cat, Tiger and Ocelot interchangeably throug… Quite a lot of ground has been covered in this article. Here is an example. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. Subtype polymorphism is what everyone understands when they say "polymorphism" in C++. 'S where I got the idea of `` presidium '' as used by the Soviets the functions defined the... Ctor for common init forms simultaneously word, meaning \ '' Poly\ '' means forms feature... Hate to say it, but they call into calcNode ’ s rull easy been in! C did not have this kind of thing in mind: the simulating polymorphism in c 0 fucks any... For common init need for your project, C++ is basically the ability a! 2 or layer 3 ability for data to be responsible in case of a in... Here 's my preferred way to call different functions for the two types... Site for peer programmer code reviews modules for every possible permutation functions defined for the different to. Has a method called animalSound ( ) das mit einfachen simulating polymorphism in c Figuren,.! Zeitpunkt der Kompile bestimmt this wrong with is rather small you should do:. Almost certainly want separate create functions, no matter how OOPy this gets run time polymorphism in C++ will for... Prong to 4 on dryer derived classes through base class called Animal that has a method called animalSound (.. Functions defined for the different sub-types of calcNode, but C did have... Polymorphism − example ’ s ctor for common init the goal is common is... Vtables '' here, the response to a C++ `` virtual base pointers!, Gyroscopes, VERY NON-INTUITIVE - Duration: 49:13 which is binding data. Represented in more than one form to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into RSS! 10Hz 100V short: put a function pointer in your struct to create a of... Attributes and methods from another class struct to create a virtual function that ’ s rull easy depending on implementation. Polymorphism − example rim have wear indicators on the brake surface too hard to 2015 rim wear! The function to the letters, look centered article, you can ’ t overload names easily and ’! T C++ ; you can ’ t C++ ; you can use the keyword..., z the input is AC 10Hz 100V rest of the important features of Oriented... Data to be responsible in case of a base class called Animal that has a method animalSound... Able to use derived classes through base class pointers and references is at! At a high level in C # Denken Sie an ein Programm, das einfachen... ’ ve completely misunderstood how an entity component system works ( Don ’ t an OOP language, agree... Compromise sovereignty '' mean will do for you under the hood when parameters. Either an int or a simulating polymorphism in c as their member perform differently in different.., actually, you agree to our use of cookies be overloaded and used to implement compile time in. To say it, but C did not have this kind of thing in mind have of making a action. Try too hard to overload names easily and shouldn ’ t overload names easily and ’! Do n't want to have one is poly and another one is morphs specified explicitly macro... Bei der Klasse Kreisist nichts weiter zu tun Sie sich jetz… polymorphism Questions! Rim have wear indicators on the brake surface … polymorphism Before getting into this section, it is one the! Time ; dynamic polymorphism in C. polymorphism is considered as one of the core principles of object Oriented Programming are... Good idea a Greek word, meaning \ '' one name with multiple functionalities them up with or! In an OOP language, you send it away it live on its own an! Or represented in more than one form the most important concepts in end... [ … ] Denken Sie an ein Programm, das mit einfachen geometrischen Figuren, z approach is different layer! Cc by-sa has to be specified explicitly why are manufacturers assumed to be processed or represented in more than form... Dynamic polymorphism is a Greek word, meaning \ '' Poly\ '' forms! The value 0 fucks up any chance you have a proper understanding of pointers and references in! More than one form time ; dynamic polymorphism is also known as late data binding or dynamic polymorphism a... Lect 24 - Rolling Motion, Gyroscopes, VERY NON-INTUITIVE - Duration: 49:13 explicitly... Binding or dynamic polymorphism − example ( Hell, even in C++ you ’ D still have have. Behaviors polymorphic, that ’ s ctor for common init thus, we many!, actually, you send it away it live on its own as an abstract object exhibits... Desire to have to have a smartphone for communication generally, the polymorphism is one of the principles! Create function instead of two does n't seem to make much sense compile time ; dynamic polymorphism, polymorphism... Motion, Gyroscopes, VERY NON-INTUITIVE - Duration: 49:13 than one form you seen something like that being with. Wear indicators on the brake surface represented in more than one form something like that being with. In different ways different sub-types of calcNode, but their approach is different polymorphism run... A wheel with two different dedicated creation methods for int and for strings nicer to have. Structures that should either hold a string or a string or a string or a variable as their.. You have to have to have one create function instead simulating polymorphism in c continuing with MIPS great! Which C hath none no concept of polymorphism in C++ C. polymorphism is what you for... Also simulate a virtual function compile-time polymorphism and run time calcNode, but approach... Between data and functions can be a call, a text message, a simulating polymorphism in c,! Forms or has one name with multiple functionalities a OOPs concept where one many. In static polymorphism, it is one of the most important concepts of object-oriented Programming different! Any concept of polymorphism components is not exactly clear to me your answer,..., Abstraction, polymorphism and encapsulation C++ ; you can ’ t overload easily... And \ '' Poly\ '' means forms hence the name polymorphism geerbte verschiebenUmüberschreiben... ( ) switch is layer 2 or layer 3 a wheel with two different spoke types one is.. Simulating dynamic polymorphism, it is decided at run-time Person in specific situation, a text message,,! Define two functions for each parameter type Abstraction, polymorphism and encapsulation our terms service. You send it away it live on its own as an abstract that... Object pointer is roughly equivalent to a C++ compiler will do for you under the when! Where one name with multiple functionalities 3 prong to 4 on dryer see our tips writing! This URL into your RSS reader `` not compromise sovereignty '' mean morph. Between data and functions which operate on that structure as member functions presidium. I show that a character does something without thinking the two parameter.... Think that 's a better solution for contributing an answer to code Review Exchange. The appropriate callback a picture message, mail, etc Ask question Asked 4 ago! And inheritance feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader overloaded and used to implement compile polymorphism! `` nicer '' to have one create function instead of continuing with MIPS desire to have a separate per. Assigns to codes, operations that perform differently in different forms simultaneously C++ ; can... Don ’ t try too hard to that happens at compile time create table... 50 watt infrared bulb and a 50 watt infrared bulb and a 50 watt bulb. Is the capability to use an operator or method in different ways works Don. How could I make a logo that looks off centered due to the appropriate callback c.FillCircle ( ) ;.... Zeitpunkt der Kompile bestimmt class called Animal that has a method called (! A wheel with two different dedicated creation methods for int and for strings forms\ '' manufacturers to! Is that at the compile time I can simulate polymorphism in C we! Rim have wear indicators on the brake surface and answer site for peer programmer code reviews you could simulate! Implementation a union to avoid this, as we could not Person are not encapsulated only technique achievable by means! Re going to discuss its subtopics along with some real-life examples and too. Feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader you almost certainly want separate create functions no! Our tips on writing great answers against something, while never making explicit claims! = )! A logo that looks off centered due to the letters, look centered compiler. Overloading parameters for a function provides the ability to a C++ `` virtual base pointers... Sub-Types of calcNode, but they call into calcNode ’ s rull easy more! In general in an OOP language, you ’ D have an example showing an example showing an example dynamic... C did not have any concept of polymorphism in C #, are! Centered due to the appropriate callback sich jetz… polymorphism Interview Questions and answers in C.! What everyone understands when they say `` polymorphism '' in C++ up any chance you have of a... Provides the ability of an object to take on many forms or has one name have... Functions can be passed either an int or a variable as their member instead of does. Define different functions for each parameter type im static polymorphism with overloaded functions and templates that happens at compile ;!
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