[115] Presidios had a resident commanders, who set up commercial enterprises of imported merchandise, selling it to soldiers as well as Indian allies. [29][30][31][32] But not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Chocolate (Nahuatl: chocolate) and vanilla were cultivated in Mexico and imported to Europe. The Spanish network needed a port city so that inland settlements could be connected by sea to Spain. Edited by Juanita De Barros, Audra Diptee, and David V. Trotman, 35–67. In Hispaniola, the indigenous Taíno pre-contact population before the arrival of Columbus of several hundred thousand had declined to sixty thousand by 1509. Cook, Noble David. The population of the Native American population in Mexico declined by an estimated 90% (reduced to 1–2.5 million people) by the early 17th century. The Spanish recognized indigenous elites as nobles and gave them continuing standing in their communities. Spanish explorations of other islands in the Caribbean and what turned out to be the mainland of South and Central America occupied them for over two decades. The four main colonial powers in the Caribbean were the Spanish, English, Dutch, and French. West Indies - West Indies - Colonialism: England was the most successful of the northwestern European predators on the Spanish possessions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The utter devastation caused by the white man was literally incredible, and not until the population figures are examined does the extent of the havoc become evident. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. [47], The Columbian Exchange was as significant as the clash of civilizations. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Spanish settlement in Mexico “largely replicated the organization of the area in preconquest times” while in Peru, the center of the Incas was too far south, too remote, and at too high an altitude for the Spanish capital. Spanish conquistadors, settlers, priests, or colonial officials were given a repartimiento, or grant of land. Sort by: Top Voted. [72] Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. First published in 1978. [107], After the reign of Philip II, the municipal offices, including the councilors, were auctioned to alleviate the need for money of the Crown, even the offices could also be sold, which became hereditary,[108] so that the government of the cities went on to hands of urban oligarchies. To satisfy his debts to the Welsers, he granted them the right to colonize and exploit western Venezuela, with the proviso that they found two towns with 300 settlers each and construct fortifications. Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos denounced Spanish cruelty and abuse in a sermon in 1511, which comes down to us in the writings of Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas. Some masters were British while others were Spanish, and French. [113], Most Spanish settlers came to the Indies as permanent residents, established families and businesses, and sought advancement in the colonial system, such as membership of cabildos, so that they were in the hands of local, American-born (crillo) elites. The Nahuas after the Conquest. In the face of the impossibility of the Castilian institutions to take care of the New World affairs, other new institutions were created. Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. [64], As the basic political entity it was the governorate, or province. 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