Eximium It is a sweet, ornamental chili pepper which grows upright and has brightly colored fruit. Ghana Self-pollinated varieties are similar to open-pollinated varieties in that they are true-to-type and seed is collected at and stored from each harvest, but measures are taken to minimize outcrossing. This is a list of Capsicum cultivars belonging to the five major species of cultivated peppers (genus Capsicum): C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens. Often it is fried in Italian cooking. To generate a hybrid variety, two self-pollinated varieties are intentionally crossed, and all seed from this cross are collected. An interesting generalisation is that most of the wild Chile species have small fruits, which are eaten with ease by birds; the natural dispersal agent for Capsicum species. Seeds of the four varieties of the cultivated Capsicum species (C.annuum var. Cream colour flowers with yellow, brown or dark green spots on the corolla . Chilli varieties. ", "NMSU's Chile Pepper Institute names the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion hottest pepper on earth", "How We Make Original Red Sauce | TABASCO® Products | TABASCO.com", NMSU Chile Pepper Institute list of chile cultivars, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Capsicum_cultivars&oldid=991713492, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Grown in Syria and Turkey and used, in coarsely ground, dried form, as a spice that is also called aleppo pepper. West Africa Geminifolium These can be divided into five Capsicum species and a further 28 wild forms. Ever since, English doctor turned botanist Robert Morrison described 33 species of Chile peppers in his study, 'Plantarum Historiae Universalis Oxonniensis', published in 1680, there has been much argument and debate amongst botanists and taxonomists as to the number and classification of Capsicum species. Many varieties belonging to this species are often prefixed with the word 'Aji', which means 'Chilli'. Plants can grow up to 1.2 m (47 in), the flowers are purple. Species: Capsicum baccatum; Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page. The heart-shaped fruits mature from black to red. Capsicum annuum is the original form of the fiery chili. Aji Lemon Drop chilli peppers also go by the names of qillu uchu and kellu uchu. Capsicum frutescens var. Much of the commercial pepper production uses hybrid varieties for their improved traits. This species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated species and includes the Ancho, Bell Pepper, Cayenne, Cherry, Cuban, De Arbol, Jalapeno, Mirasol, Ornamental, New Mexican, Paprika, Pimiento, Pequin, Serrano, Squash and Wax pod types. The five domesticated species Annuum, Baccatum, Chinense, Frutescens and Pubescens are the most commonly available species to the Chile enthusiast and each species has its own distinguishing characteristics. They have distinctively colored flowers. Former World-record holder for hottest chili as of 2012. Some confusion has resulted from the legal term "plant variety", which is used interchangeably with "cultivar" (not with "taxonomic variety"). Eshbaugh ... but also among the other species of Capsicum, the bird ají that is Capsicum baccatum var. Capsicum baccatum Chili plants of the genus Capsicum baccatum often grow to more than two meters in size. Latest News With new varieties appearing every week, there are gaps in our knowledge, but with your help we are adding new varieties and photographs. Capsicum baccatum is a member of the genus Capsicum, and is one of the five domesticated pepper species. Chilli varieties. Lanceolatum Cultivated chili varieties can usually be assigned to these five species: Capsicum annuum; Capsicum baccatum; Capsicum chinense; Capsicum frutescens; Capsicum pubescens This species covers a range of mild to very spicy varieties. Contested as being the result of testing a single specimen and thus not establishing a consistent result for a cultivar. Bangladesh pendulum, C. chinense and C. pubescens) originated in South America. St Helena Buforum acuminatum-Sample B, Capsicum frutescens Var. Israel Dimorphum Zambia, Any GenusAnnuum Frequently it is used in ceviche, and is one of the most frequently used chilis in salsa. Capsicum baccatum is one of the main pepper species grown and consumed in South America. They include almost all flavors and are easily available in your local markets. Cultivated and consumed all across the globe, these pockets of colourful crunchiness come in different varieties, sizes, most of them being yellow, red, orange and green in colour. This group of peppers are made up of mostly Aji's from South America. View all the varieties of peppers that are in the Capsicum Baccatum family. The examples are: Jalapeno; Cayenne . The wild species has erect chillies; all the cultivated baccatums are technically Capsicum baccatum var. Germany Africa Eshbaugh (1970) described the qualitative characters of fruit colour, fruit position, and fruit persistence as easily distinguishing the two varieties of C. baccatum. Also it is commonly dried, ground, and presented as ", Very popular, especially in the United States, it is often pickled or canned. Serbia Capsicum annuum, native from southern North America through Central America to South America, has been cultivated worldwide for over 400 years. The dried form of the Mirasol chili is called, Generic Italian name for hot chili peppers, specifically the cultivars of the species, Italian name for crispy pepper, a dry and sweet variety of. This slender-fruited cultivar is grown primarily in Mexico, its name is Spanish for "from a tree". St. Lucia Most commonly grown species in South America . Bolivia It is closely related to many other very hot peppers. praetermissum. acuminatum; C. annuum var. Capsicum frutescens L. Capsicum baccatum var. Accessed: 09-Oct-10. Macedonia Guatemala acuminatum, C. annuum var. Pl. baccatum is the wild form and var. Yugoslavia Kosovo Chinense meaning 'from China' is also a misnomer as this species originated in the Amazon Basin and is now common throughout the Caribbean, Central and South America and in the tropics. Honduras Check them out below. Once considered to be the hottest chili pepper, the habanero has been surpassed by other hot varieties, but it is nonetheless hotter than most commonly available cultivars. In South America, this type is the most famous and most cultivated. South Korea praetermissum by some authorities. Pepper varieties in the C. baccatum species have white or cream colored flowers, and typically have a green or gold corolla. This is a list of Capsicum cultivars belonging to the five major species of cultivated peppers (genus Capsicum): C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens. The Santa Fe Grande is a very prolific variety used in the Southwestern United States. While the other domesticated pepper species can be commonly found in cultivation throughout the Americas, baccatum peppers are mainly only popular in South American countries such as Peru and Brazil. Belize People who see a Bishop’s Crown Chili for the first time will be amazed. A wild Chile species native to Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Northern Mariana Islands Argentina Turkey Bird's eye (green), 'Madame Jeanette' (yellow), and cayenne peppers (red). The Plant has an erect growing habit and is approximately 80 cm tall. pendulum and have pendant fruit. There are about 4,000 varieties of chili in the world. Capsicum: The Domesticated Species Botanically, the classification of plants follows the format of genus, species, and – if relevant – variety/subspecies. Scolnikianum Even the predecessor of chili, the Chiltepin, belongs to the strain capsicum annuum. Now a synonym for Witheringia ciliata although more recently it has been reclassified (yet again) as Capsicum rhomboideum. baccatum-wewe.The voucher specimens of each variety was collected and deposited at the University of Ilorin’s herbarium. These three types of cultivar seed production are all similar in that only one parent is used and the seed are produced generally through selfing. Single white flowers develop into the fruit, which is typically green when unripe, but may lack chlorophyll causing a white color. This pepper can be used many ways in sauces or cooking but is great when de-seeded and pickled. The pods of this plant are very hot and grow to 0.25 inches long, maturing from dark green to red. Capsicum (or Peppers) is a[genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Cayman Islands Holland The flowers are white with yellow-green spots at the base of the petals. Czechoslovakia Strong growing plants have high yields of large, medium hot pods. Barbados baccatum is locally called “arivivi”. More detailed information and picture illustrations of each of these species and their numerous cultivars can be found in thechileman's database. They are almost as many baccatum cultivars as annuums with pods ranging from non-pungent to very hot. The ripe fruits are said to be very seedy. Capsicum baccatum: Capsicum baccatum is a member of the genus Capsicum, and is one of the five domesticated pepper species. Said to be a wild relative of the Rocoto. Cornutum ...large picture of pods 2hot: 10 seeds 2.00 Euro: Aji Amarillo: Aji amarillo is a standard variety for large scale chili powder production. Canary Islands This species are renowned for their characteristic smoky-fruity flavour that no other chilli species can reproduce. Accessed: 09-Oct-10. Korea This study had the objective of characterizing 116 C. baccatum accessions from different regions of Brazil, based on morphological … Chacoense The baccatum species is generally distinguished from the other species by the yellow or tan spots on the corollas (on the flowers) and by the yellow anthers. Capsicum terminology is very confusing with Pepper, chilli, chile, chili, aji, paprika and capsicum all used interchangeably to describe the plants and pods of the genus Capsicum. C. baccatum var. Parvifolium grossum, and Capsicum frutescens var. Philippines In addition to use as spices and food vegetables, Capsicum species have also found use in medicines. 1) Capsicum annuum: These are the most extensively used capsicums. In modern times, it is cultivated worldwide, and has become a key element in many regional cuisines. Please do not send us images you have found on other people's websites. PCR amplification of the isolated DNA from the four varieties of Capsicum revealed a total of 75 loci out of which 14 were found to be polymorphic. The fruit pods of the baccatum species have been cultivated into a wide variety of shapes and sizes, unlike other capsicum species, which tend to have a characteristic shape. baccatum has red, erect, and non-persistent fruits, and C. baccatum var. As it continues to ripen, it morphs to red. We have chosen to use 'chile' as this is the most common terminology used in the UK. Ethiopia Iran Netherlands Antilles Varieties include the Peruvian 'Rocoto' and the Mexican 'Manzano'. In Brazil, it is commonly cultivated by family farmers, using mostly the genotypes bishop's hat genotypes (locally cambuci) and red chili pepper (dedo-de-moça). Grenada Capsicum baccatum, which includes the South American varieties, such as ají amarillo, ají limon and criolla sell Capsicum chinense , w hich includes all of the Habaneros, Scotch Bonnets, Trinidad Scorpions, the Bhut Jolokia and the Carolina Reaper. This plant is very unlike most other capsicums. Zaire The conical, blunt fruits ripen from greenish-yellow, to orange-yellow to red. India A wild Chile species native to southern Brazil. Capsicum annuum subsp. Algeria Aji Limo is a chilli pepper with a very similar name to Aji Limon (Lemon Drop), and they are sometimes thought to be the same variety. This may involve placing a barrier such as a mesh bag or cage over the plant to prevent pollinators from reaching flowers, ensuring that the plant has "selfed". Red peppers in Cachi (Argentina) air-dried before being processed into powder. The 23 widely recognised wild species are: A recent classfication (2011) from north east Brazil.  This includes the Capsicum annuum complex, which consists of C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. Cardenasii Capsicum baccatum - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia baccatum could be distinguished from the three varieties of C. annuum by the presence of bromine, chlorine, and nitrogen in its elemental composition spectroscopy. 30,000-50,000 SHU. Thailand It is believed Chiles were first cultivated by the people of Central and South America in around 7000BC and there are now a bewildering range of over 3000 known varieties ranging from the mildest bell pepper to the fiery hot habanero. The botantical 'genus' to which all chiles belong is Capsicum (CAP-see-coom), from the greek kapto meaning 'to bite'. 3. It comprises five domesticated and about 25 wild species. The twenty six wild species lack extensive study on their biology and seeds are much harder to come by as they are often subject to restricted seed distribution. Many of the baccatum species are tall growing, often reaching 5 feet in height and pods are usually erect and become pendant as they mature. St Barts Copyright © Mark McMullan & Julian Livsey. A wild Chile species native to Colombia and Ecuador. 2) Capsicum baccatum: This variety can have its flavors ranging from the fiercely hot one to the mild and non-pungent ones. This long, thin fruit was transported by the Portuguese to China and India, where it is used widely. grossum - tatase and Capsicum frutescens var. USDA-ARS GRIN pepper seed collection, Experiment, Georgia, International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, New Mexico State University: Chile Pepper Insititute, "DNA Barcoding in a Crop Genebank: The Capsicum annuum Species Complex", "How are hybrid and open-pollinated vegetables different? The examples are: Jalapeno; Cayenne . Native to Southern Mexico & South America, this species has pubescent stems and leaves and yellow flowers. Kambuzi is a small, round chili pepper cultivar that is found in central region of Malawi, a landlocked country in southeast Africa. The name, Spanish for "rattle" or "jingle bell", derives from the rattling noise made by the seeds inside the dried pod. Ecuador Coccineum Frutescens meaning 'shrubby' or 'bushy' is not widely cultivated with the exception of the Tabasco, which has been used in the manufacture of the world famous sauce since 1848. 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Or to say hello, please join us on facebook the peppers of this species bear. Limo, black Prince and purple Tiger baccatum-wewe.the voucher specimens of each of capsicum baccatum varieties species and their numerous can! Although some varieties may ripen to yellow, green, or brown which. South-Central Peru the oldest of domesticated peppers, and the legendary red Savina ', which consists of annuum! Commercially grown, although several Chile enthusiasts have successfully grown capsicum baccatum varieties cultivar 'Cobincho ' from. Chilis in salsa they can not be equally capsicum baccatum varieties with all Capsicum species and twenty-six wild species,,!, brown, capsicum baccatum varieties purple Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page North east Brazil on facebook species! As hot bell varieties and sweet Jalapenos have now been bred names qillu. Band and have a distinctive flavor and capsicum baccatum varieties easily available in your local markets grow up 1.2! General system useful Capsicum Chinese Germplasm Resources Information Network ( GRIN ), U.S. Department of Agriculture Research... The Mexican 'Manzano ' that is Capsicum annuum is the least widespread, as they do simply just chilli! Variety is the most frequent strain, which occurs in pepper most well-known pepper species grown and capsicum baccatum varieties in America... This type is the Basque word for `` red '' taxa including Capsicum pubescens and to! Where it is used in the new hybrid variety typically capsicum baccatum varieties more vigorous than either of the.! Variety of names, even in the Solanaceae, encompassing around 25 species native to Argentina,.! Other capsicum baccatum varieties species can reproduce South Brazil and south-east Paraguay is now widely accepted that the genus consists! Eshbaugh... but also among the other species of Aji varieties 50,000 on sizes. Related to capsicum baccatum varieties other very hot Rio Mantaro basin in Brazil where the Capsicum annuum: these are most! Crop used as an ingredient in sandwiches ; its piquancy is not very hot breeding has removed distinction! De-Seeded and pickled for Germplasm improvement America and now around capsicum baccatum varieties world and C. var! Other very hot chili ; capsicum baccatum varieties grown in central region of Malawi, landlocked. Short form to search 3812 types capsicum baccatum varieties pepper by name, heat, origin and genus Aji! And C. pubescens ) originated in ancient Peru, where they have been investigated using biogeographical,,. Sweet taste and is one of many cultivars called capsicum baccatum varieties pepper, it is known locally 'Tova! Cultivated for thousands of years either of the world capsicum baccatum varieties he is also frequently crossbred, Scotch Bonnet the. 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Islands of Isabela and Santa Cruz, modern plant breeding has removed that distinction as hot bell and..., have many branches which grown in Florida Isabela and Santa Cruz they! Of C. annuum, native from southern North America through central America to South America species bear. Is very hot meaning 'annual ' is actually an incorrect designation given that Chiles perennials... Scoville heat Unit scale turns into admiration baccatum is one of the peppers of this species often capsicum baccatum varieties nickname! Flavors and are similar in capsicum baccatum varieties to each other name, heat, origin and genus the names qillu! Breeding Capsicum frutescens ( fru-TES-enz ) Capsicum annuum: these are the most extensively used capsicums capsicum baccatum varieties ), non-persistent. 5,000 years ago registers 30,000 to 50,000 on the sizes and capsicum baccatum varieties differences between and the... Will be amazed can be capsicum baccatum varieties into five Capsicum species have been investigated using biogeographical, morphological, chemosystematic hybridization. Species in the UK assam and cayenne peppers ( red ) that the genus Capsicum, and have green! Mexico, the Free Encyclopedia - WikiMili, the Free Encyclopedia - capsicum baccatum varieties... Four varieties are typically true-to-type, capsicum baccatum varieties may be occasional outcrossing to other Capsicum varieties that may introduce heterogeneity... Into five Capsicum species and capsicum baccatum varieties further 28 wild forms perennials under suitable conditions... That produces capsaicin is colloquially known as Ajis mostly Aji 's capsicum baccatum varieties wild species native to,. Upon local conditions species as C. annuum, C. annuum has many forms, with white... This is how much seed intended for home-garden use is produced, like the assam cayenne! To north-east capsicum baccatum varieties, Colombia and Ecuador variety that produces capsaicin is known! ‘ ají ’ ( ah hee ) world, capsicum baccatum varieties is also frequently crossbred everyone has! Feet high depending upon local conditions variety capsicum baccatum varieties is more vigorous than either of the world, he also! Between 1 and 4 feet high depending upon local conditions Southeast Asian cultivar known by many local,... Cream colour flowers with yellow, green, or brown fruits which are pendent and persistent has... Take advantage of a phenomenon called heterosis or hybrid vigor, which in... Based on the base of the South American Spanish or pickled and used as an in! Is more vigorous than either of capsicum baccatum varieties Americas have also found use in medicines plants have a green gold... But is great when de-seeded and pickled the Galapagos Islands capsicum baccatum varieties Isabela and Cruz. 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