They are accompanied by two and one isoenzymes, respectively. The fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum, when cultivated on starch as the sole source of carbon, produces a beta amylase stable in the presence of heavy metal ions, thiols, and 4-chloromercuribenzoate inhibitors. Weevil Macro Arthropod. Controlling spontaneous emission lies at the heart of many emerging applications, ranging from solar energy conversion, solid-state lighting, and lasing to quantum information processing. Weevils can be monitored using pit fall traps and insecticides applied upon first capture of adult weevils. This behaviour is exploited for monitoring and control purposes. Cereal weevils, Sitophilus oryzae, were grown on a diet of wheat grain at 27.5°C and 70% relative humidity. 2010. Its Mw is 122 kDa and optimum conditions for its activity are pH 5.1–5.5 at 55 °C. P. muriceus also pupates in the soil, but R. tucumanus pupates inside potato tubers. Other widespread viruses infecting sweetpotato … The action of beta amylase is not blocked by phosphate or fatty acyl groups.879,880 The enzyme from malt is totally deactivated at 70 °C within 15 min.881 It appears882 that barley beta amylase isolated from germinated and that from matured grains are different in their thermostability. The affinity constant was thus independent of the chain length. (a, b) Cross-sectional SEM images of a bioreplicated diamond-based photonic crystal made of titania. Larvae develop under the bark of freshly cut pine and spruce stumps, but maturing weevils feed on the bark of coniferous seedlings. Coimmobilization of pullulanase appeared also beneficial.918 Beta amylase and pullulanase can be used together coimmobilized on a ceramic support.919 The use of beta amylase and isoamylase, both nonimmobilized920 and coimmobilized on such a ceramic support has also been reported.921 Sweet-potato beta amylase was activated 1.3–3.0 fold after immobilization on polycations, but polyanions inhibited it.922. This weevil may attack and damage several rows of garden beans but it is not usually a serious agricultural pest. Vines can be free from weevil infestation by dipping into a solution of insecticides [46]. Also, in the weevil P. notatus, living on Pinus pinaster, the vast majority of receptor neurons are tuned to bicyclic monoterpenes, and fewer to monocyclic monoterpenes, and only one to a sesquiterpene.50 In comparison, a relative larger number of the receptor neurons recorded in heliothine moths and the weevil A. rubi living on angiosperms, are tuned to sesquiterpenes. The enzyme from B. cereus seems to be especially effective, and therefore it is suitable for the conversion of biomass. showed the highest-fidelity negative replica structures are obtained by using a hybrid organic-inorganic silica sol for the infiltration process [26, 27]. A, single female lays about 100-120 eggs on grain surface. Phosphate groups are not cleaved.909. Seed damage classified as severe, located in the embryonic axis or in the cotyledons, resulted in abnormal seedlings or dead seeds. The same report claims a stimulating effect of isoamylase upon beta amylase. They are dark in color, with their mouths at the end of their snouts. The silica-based inverse replica was then used as the new (intermediary) template and was infiltrated with a liquid titania sol–gel precursor. Reproduced with permission. Adult lifespan is approximately 6 months. Army worms C. Weevils. Leaf damage caused by vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Rats and mice can cause structural damage to homes, apartments, offices, and virtually any type of building through gnawing, nest-building, and defecation: Mice will chew on just about anything that they see as useful in building their nests. Such seedlings frequently die because of bark consumption near the root collar. R. Davis, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. The grain or wheat weevil (Sitophilus granarius) damages stored grain, as does the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) among others. Bioreplication has supplied the first efficient photonic crystals toward these applications, and intriguing new optical properties will be made possible through this marriage of biological structure engineering and materials synthesis. Thus, in a month or two a large proportion of the grain can be damaged or destroyed. Sitophilus is naturally infected with the bacterial endosymbiont Sodalis pierantonius. Beetle Insect. caused by pea and bean weevil Adult weevils are beetle-like in shape and 4-5mm in length. WEEVIL PROBLEMS? Sleeping sickness in humans and a group of cattle diseases that are widespread in Africa and known as nagana are caused by protozoan trypanosomes transmitted by the bites of tsetse flies (Glossina). This infiltration/heating cycle can be repeated to adjust the final filling fraction of titania (achieving the third requirement of a filling fraction between 30% and 40%) and creating a dense framework. The damage is done partly by the leaf-eating adult, brown to black in colour and some 6 mm long, and partly by the larvae which feed on the rootlets and main roots at the base of the cyclamen bulb. 106 52 20. The bean stem weevil (Alcidodes leucogrammus), bores into the base of the stem of French bean (Phaseolus) or cowpea (Vigna) plants and lays a small number of eggs. Shelter traps are particularly effective just prior to the emergence of potato plants in new fields. Management practices are mainly based on cultural control measures, including selection of clean seed, deep planting, hilling, careful soil cultivation, border crops (lupine or small grains) and chemical barriers, removal of weed hosts, early harvest and ditches to protect fields from invasion by migrating adults. These are smaller and less conspicuous than Alcidodes but they do more damage because they lay their eggs in the fruits or seeds of beans, maize or rice as the crops are growing in the field. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It is not well known how or where weevil pheromones are produced, but there is evidence from Rhynchophorus palmarum males that they are synthesized in glands in the prothorax and exuded from the mouth (Sánchez et al., 1996). The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), known in the United States as the greater rice weevil, is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae.It can be found in numerous tropical areas around the world, and in the United States, and is a major pest of maize. In the pine weevil H. abietis living on the Norway spruce (Picea abies), about 30 receptor neuron types have been found.48 The majority of the recorded neurons respond to monoterpenes, and the largest group is tuned to bicyclic monoterpenes. The weevils (50,000 species) are the largest family of living organisms. Most insect and mite pests have quite specific optimum temperatures for activity and reproduction, and a lower level with regard to moisture content of the product for survival. Because of its specificity, beta amylase can hydrolyze even strongly oxidized starches.862, The enzyme is inhibited by several compounds, such as ascorbic acid, which forms a complex with the substrate.442,863–865 Indole-3-acetic acid inhibits beta amylase in the ripening banana.866 Cyanides do not inhibit the enzyme,867 but maltose does.868 Metal ions usually inhibit the enzyme; however, Ca2 +, Sr2 +, and Mn2 + activate it.465,514. NO PROBLEM. It is therefore important to maintain an effective surveillance and inspection program if populations of these insect pests are to be managed and damage is to be minimized. Attack is evidenced by, 1. D. Maize stalk borer. additionally cites other damages caused by weevils in stored grains, such as: formation of heat cavities in the grain mass, pollution of the grain mass, dissemination of molds in the grain mass and depreciation of the product. This may be food seeds or beans in the cupboards, popcorn, saved garden seeds, dried seed decorations, decorative Indian corn, "bean bags," old grain-based mouse bait, or other stored seeds. Weevils Beetle. They frequently cause almost complete destruction of grain in elevators or bins, where conditions are favorable and the grain is undisturbed for some length of time. In these holes, the female lays her eggs. In general, we have found little overlap of the molecular receptive ranges of the relative large number of neurons characterized43-47 (Røstelien et al. For example, Figure 14.12 depicts SEM images of the positive replica of the L. augustus photonic crystal structure made of nanocrystalline titania with a measured refractive index of 2.3 ± 0.1. Sol–gel chemistry, with its flexible processing parameters and versatility, is promising; however, it is necessary to adjust and modify the typical sol–gel infiltration and processing conditions to meet all the geometric and dielectric requirements for this replica. Larvae leave the tubers to make their pupal cells in the soil where they pass the winter. All rights reserved. Sampling at tropical localities has yielded large numbers of weevils. However, the most widely used trapping technique is ‘shelter traps’ baited with insecticide-drenched potato foliage (Alcázar and Cisneros, 1997). damages caused by maize weevil confusum are important pests of stored grain. This changed recently when the first experimental studies with titania bioreplica of diamond-based photonic crystals revealed the enormous potential of this new type of optical material. Infiltration of the precursor solution was followed by heating the silica/titania composite to 500 °C to induce nanocrystallization of titania. They are found primarily in the seeds of higher plants and in sweet potatoes, and it resides in an inactive form until germination and/or ripening.223,357,405,839,870–873 Extracts of sugar cane contain beta amylase, which can be used in the production of maltose syrup. Hanna Mustaparta, Marit Stranden, in Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, 2005. Soybean, barley, rice, wheat, koji, sweet potato, and broad bean are the commonest sources of plant beta amylase. 6 2 0. The enzyme thus immobilized retained up to 35% its of original activity. It is also the fumigant of choice by most quarantine agencies. Sweet potato weevils generally cause serious damage to all parts of sweet potato plant throughout their life cycle, from egg to adult. The eggs are laid below the surface of the roots and covered with dark colour excrement from the female adults . A thermostable beta amylase is produced by Clostridium thermosulfurogenes.910 In the presence of 5% soluble starch, it is stable911 even above 80 °C at pH 5.5–6.0. 26 13 1. The first predicted property, the creation of a positive replica of the original beetle photonic crystal structure, requires a double-templating process since a negative replica of this structure, which could be obtained by a single replication step, was predicted to lack a complete band gap. (TV: Combat) Though not quite cold-blooded, Weevils had a mu… The major problem in effecting satisfactory control is the difficulty of detecting infestations of the weevils and borers. Weevil Bug Insect. Optimum conditions for maltose production were established883as 106 MPa, 63 °C, and pH 5.6. MELO RA; FORTI VA; CICERO SM; NOVEMBRE ADLC; MELO PCT. Lesser grain borer is regarded, as second in importance to rice weevil as destroyer of, the stored grains. In addition, receptor neuron types with the same primary but different secondary odorants are present in the distantly related species of moths and weevils living on different host groups. The majority of the known systems involved are male-emitted and the pheromones are often strong enough to attract both sexes from tens of meters away (Bartelt, 1999b and references therein). Beetle and weevil pests of stored products. However, Voss885 postulated the formation of aggregates of starch with beta amylase through mutual entanglement. When laying eggs, female weevils excavate cavities and create egg-laying punctures in the roots. Banana weevils from Rakai caused the highest ACD of 40.4% and no such damage was caused by banana weevils collected from western Uganda. Gray: air; green: dielectric (silica or titania). Gelatinized corn starch is more readily hydrolyzed by beta amylase, but it more readily retrogrades. Another feature to compare among the species is possible overlap of the molecular receptive ranges of the receptor neurons, implying whether a compound is detected by one or more neuron types. In summary, the identified odorants activating receptor neurons are constitutive in plants. The mobility of beta amylase adsorbed on the surface of starch gel was studied with the fluorescently labeled enzyme. A new research project aiming at reducing the damages caused by the pine weevil (Hylobius albietis L.) started on October 1st, called WeevilSTOP. Burning infected plants at once, and all plants at the end of the growing season, will help to control the weevil. Recent evidence suggests that it is a general property of SPCSV to be able to cause synergistic disease with co-infecting viruses, probably through suppression of host defense mechanisms. Macro Insect. The weevils form a large family of beetles. Germinated barley produces the more-thermostable enzyme. In contrast, the enantiomers of germacrene D produced by different enzymes activate one and the same neuron type. The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) attacks cotton crops; it lays its eggs inside cotton bolls and the larvae eat their way out. At Barro Colorado Island in Panamá, three years of light trapping (Wolda et al., 1998) yielded 1240 species of Curculionoidea (excluding Platypodinae and Scolytinae, but including about 200 species from four other families). In this form it loses some of its activity, but its stability is increased.915 Beta amylase from barley was covalently attached to aminated derivatives of epichlorohydrin-cross-linked Sepharose. Weevils were roughly humanoid in shape and size, but were a bit taller and had flattened faces with many sharp, fang-like teeth. Alcidodes is largely a pest of African crops but far greater losses are caused by various widely distributed species of grain weevil, Sitophilus. The abscission of cotton squares caused by boll weevil is often related to proteic compounds released by 2 nd and 3 rd larvae into the buds (King & Lane, 1969; Coakley et al., 1969), but this work showed the influence of morphological damage in bud abscission. Average ACD in suckers was 19.6% and significantly higher than that in tissue culture plants (8.5%). The enzyme migrated across the surface through lateral diffusion and exchange between free and anchored enzyme molecules in the solution covering the gel.902, The beta amylase from B. stearothermophilus consists of an exoenzyme of Mw 39 kDa and an endoenzyme of Mw 67 kDa.509, Aspergillus oryzae is a good source of beta amylase.903–908 The enzyme, after purification, produced glucose during the initial stage of starch hydrolysis.908 Beta amylase secreted by A. awamori also hydrolyzes potato starch in a similar manner, with yields reaching 90%. Therefore, the width of this calculated band gap is most likely too narrow to stay open in a real material. The corrective approach involves the use of fumigants, particularly when an infestation gets out of hand, or when there is a need for a quick kill to facilitate a sale or meet a quarantine requirement. From the relatively large number of olfactory receptor neurons classified in moths and weevils, a major difference has appeared across species that use gymnosperm and angiosperm hosts. This moisture is caused by the respiration of large populations of weevils in the food. It performs best at pH 5 and 60 °C, and it is suitable for hydrolysis of waste starch.914, As with alpha amylase, beta amylase can be used immobilized on a support. frequently damages strawberry, hardy ornamental nursery stock and house and garden plants. No significant sources of host plant resistance have been found in primitive cultivars or wild potato species. Corm damage assessment suggests the existence of banana weevil biotypes but it is recommended that follow-up studies be carried out to … Barley beta amylase exposed to hydrostatic pressure as high as 200 MPa becomes significantly more stable to heat. Possibly, in this case, the relevant information is mediated only by (-)-germacrene D. J. Kreuze, S. Fuentes, in Encyclopedia of Virology (Third Edition), 2008. Ammonium sulfate enhanced the adsorption. D.E. A farmer noticed that his maize at flowering stage had holes on the leaves and stems. While the seeds or grains are in store, the larvae eat the inside of the seed. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847195000071, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128013946000154, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X006404, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444510181500671, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096338040772, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123965233000014, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079992005800115, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123744104006476, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124159952000143, Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), INSECT PESTS | Problems Caused by Insects and Mites, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES | Residue Determination, Edward B. Radcliffe, Abdelaziz Lagnaoui, in, Pheromones: Function and Use in Insect and Tick Control☆, Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Animal endo-beta amylases were found in the midguts of the, Chemical Ecology and Phytochemistry of Forest Ecosystems, From the relatively large number of olfactory receptor neurons classified in moths and, Virus diseases form the most important biotic production constrain of sweetpotato together with sweetpotato, Solution-Based Techniques for Biomimetics and Bioreplication, After the discovery of photonic crystals with the desirable diamond-based lattice geometry in. Dampness which may even cause germination 3. It was strongly inhibited by sodium dodecylsulfate and 4-chloromercuribenzoate.873 The optimum conditions for the beta amylase of sweet potato are similar,442,828,876 namely pH 5.3–5.8 and 53 °C, and the molecular weight of this beta amylase is877 206 ± 1 kDa. They are light grey to brown in colour with faint striping along the length of the wing cases. The adult palm weevil, Rhyncophorus, is about 4-5 cm long and normally breeds in the stumps of palm trees, but will also lay its eggs in young leaves of palm trees at points where these have been damaged by human activity or by pests such as the rhinoceros beetle. Aditi S. Risbud, Michael H. Bartl, in Engineered Biomimicry, 2013. According to Zou et al. (c) Calculated band structure diagram for this photonic crystal lattice showing a narrow complete band gap (gray rectangle). The structures of the pheromone molecules seem very diverse. 2. unpublished data). The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Which one of the following pests is likely to have caused the damage? 13 4 0. Other potato weevils of economic importance, but primarily in Bolivia, are Rhigopsidius tucumanus Heller occurring above 2500 m and Phyrdenus muriceus Germar in mesothermic valleys. damages caused by the Hylobius abietis pest in the first two years are held under control through the protective measures applied, the success index of artificially regeneration being placed between the accepted limits of at least 85% for the mountain and pre-mountain area. Horticultura Brasileira 28: 472-476. Studies on the mechanisms of biosynthesis and regulation are also lacking. 3. A. Aphids B. The great majority of weevils are endophytic; the few that feed directly on leaves often do so as leaf-miners. If this material is a crop plant or seeds used for human food, the weevils may cause serious damage. The enzymes of B. megatermium and B. polymyxa adsorb on starches, most efficiently on rice starch. Thus, in the species presented here, a correlation appears between the primary odorants of the majority of receptor neurons and the principal compounds in the two groups of host plants. For some experiments the weevils were fed starch pellets made using 5 g of rice starch in 250 μL of water. In Table 1 is a listing of the major beetle and weevil pests of these stored products. However, within the same chemical group, like bicyclic monoterpenes, some overlap is found in weevils48,50,51 (Bichão et al. This could be wood, paper, cloth, books, etc. Wheat beta amylase digests starch in proportion to its concentration and demonstrates a peak of activity in the presence of 1% NaCl.884 In contrast to alpha amylase, beta amylase does not adsorb on starch, and Ca2 + ions have no influence on it. When a food requires this treatment, it is generally the result of the preventive program being ineffective as a result of some breakdown in the pest management program. Following solidification of the silica-based framework, this biological template was removed by etching with a mixture of concentrated perchloric and nitric acids. The amylase of low molecular weight is inhibited by maltose.888, In flours hydrolyzed with their own beta amylase, small granules are digested before large granules, but in soluble starch the large granules are digested first.866 It should be noted that there are two beta amylases, one free and the other latent, in wheat.889, In contrast to plant beta amylases which hardly attack nongelatinized granules, bacterial beta amylases from Bacilli will adsorb on raw starch. Beetle Insect. Using the structural and dielectric properties of the replica, band-structure calculations revealed the formation of a complete photonic band gap (with a gap-to-mid-gap ratio of 2–5%) in the green portion of the visible spectrum (Figure 14.12c) [27]. The Andean potato weevil complex is a group of closely related curculionids attacking potatoes grown above 2500 m. The most important species are Premnotrypes latithorax (Pierce) limited to Chile, Bolivia and southern Peru, Premnotrypes suturicallus Kuschel in central Peru and Premnotrypes vorax (Hustache) distributed over the northern Andes (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru) (Alcázar and Cisneros, 1999). Single infections by most sweetpotato viruses, however, cause little to no disease in most cultivars. 2 0 1. Examples are the separate receptor neurons evolved in forest weevils that receive information about different bicyclic monoterpenes in conifers. Both amylases operate best at pH 6.0 and they both follow Michaelis–Menten kinetics. These are smaller and less conspicuous than Alcidodes but they do more damage because they lay their eggs in the fruits or seeds of beans, maize or rice as the crops are growing in the field. This effect can be avoided892 by dropwise addition of alkali-treated amylose to the enzyme buffered to pH 4.8. Under nonsanitary conditions the common housefly Musca can play an incidental role in the spread of human intestinal infections (e.g., typhoid , bacillary and amebic dysentery ) by contamination of food. Sonenshine, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2017. Bespozvonochnoe Nature. Supplemented starch pellets were made using the same process but with the addition of 50 mg of either tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, DOPA, or a combination of the amino acids to the starch mixture prior to drying. While, external feeders are conspicuous by their presence, the, internal feeders are very often discernible only after, a considerable damage is caused. This indicates an independent evolution of these receptors, or possibly chance mutations of common ancestral receptor genes in the two weevil species during the adaptation to their conifer hosts. However, they are also major pests of roots and tubers, dried fruits and nuts, and dried meats and other animal products. Which one of the following crop pests damages crops by piercing into the leaves and sucking juice? (Clavicipitaceae), is massproduced as a biopesticide in cottage-type facilities in several Andean communities of Peru, Bolivia and Colombia (Cisneros and Vera, 2001). Pullulanase also stimulates that amylase,912 but another report913 contradicts this statement. Eggs are laid on potato, weeds or in the soil. The large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) is an important pest of young forest stands in Europe. In some weevils the rostrum is so narrow that it is thought that the adults do not feed at all or that they take only liquids. Much fewer respond to sesquiterpenes, of which the primary odorant has only been identified for two out of the five neuron types, as α-copaene and a farnesene analogue, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that it is a general property of SPCSV to be able to cause synergistic disease with co-infecting viruses, probably through suppression of host defense mechanisms. Galusha et al. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The Otiorrhynchi are a kind of weevil: The Black Vine Weevil O. sulcatus and the Cyclamen Weevil O. rugosostriatus are the worst pests on cyclamen. They pupate in the stem and emerge as adults in about 50 days, though this period is very variable. Even though the calculations and modeling results give very clear instructions on how an optimal structure needs to be designed, translating these results into a solution-based templating process is rather challenging. These amylases hydrolyze amylopectin to maltose, but do not hydrolyze pullulan or β-limit dextrins. 46 22 1. In the final processing step, the intermediary silica-based template was selectively removed by hydrofluoric-acid etching, leaving behind a positive replica of the weevil photonic-crystal structure made of titania. Weevil Beetle Insect. Sweet-potato starch is only partially hydrolyzed by beta amylase, although a 76–79% yield of maltose can be achieved.857 Amylopectin is more readily digested than amylose up to approximately 40% of hydrolysis.858 Corn starch is poorly digested by beta amylase unless it is lintnerized.859 Once it is hydrolyzed, it becomes resistant to retrogradation. When rains start, adults emerge and feed mainly on leaves and stems of potato plants. Toward starches is efficacy decreases in the order: wheat > corn > potato > sweet potato.900, Adsorption of the beta amylase from B. cereus mycoides onto corn starch reached a yield of 95%, and the activity of adsorbed enzyme was 85% of that of the original enzyme. 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