Studies had shown that seasonal changes and hydrocarbon pollution are the two major causes of litter fall and litter accumulation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. crabs, mudskippers). This leads to the rapid growth of mangroves in highly polluted soils. Soil physico-chemical characteristics of different mangrove forest in Okrika, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Mangroves of the Niger River Delta grade into several plant communities from land to sea. Therefore, if these qualities are destroyed as a result of human activities the red mangrove population will decline leading to succession [14] and entry of foreign species [64]. A symbiotic relationship does exist between the red mangrove trees and black ants. Likewise, incremental sea level rise and storm overwash can lead to increased salinity within coastal ponds, Aroloye O. Numbere (November 7th 2018). Global mangrove distributions have fluctuated throughout human and geological history. Mangrove Species Distribution and Composition, Adaptive Strategies and Ecosystem Services in the Niger River Delta, Nigeria, Mangrove Ecosystem Ecology and Function, Sahadev Sharma, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79028. A representative soil sample was collected and grinded into fine particles, such that it can pass through 0.5 mm sieve and air dried. This is because the wood retains heat for long. There was gradation of heavy metal concentration along the established 20 m transect. The sea breeze that blows and serenades the trees is a soothing balm that calms a restless nerve. They are mostly old growth forest that had been growing for the past 20–30 years without disturbance. BG refers to Buguma. The branches hardly submerge during high tide or flooding because of the nature of the root system, which grow above the water level. Indiscriminate sand dredging is high in the area and had led to the disappearance of many coastal communities because of their conversion from aquatic to a terrestrial environment for the purpose of land expansion to establish residential and industrial quarters. The distribution of mangrove forests is considered critical baseline information, since knowing where there … It prevents biting and chewing insect pest (grasshoppers and locust) from chewing the leaves. The mangrove despite its usefulness to man and the environment has faced a lot of anthropogenic disturbances, which if not curtailed will lead to the final extinction of the mangroves. The soil and the reagents were mixed by swirling the flask gently for 1 min. Zonation often characterizes mangrove forests. This allows easy soil implantation and growth. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. The mangrove develops long root system that can easily be mistaken for a tree branch. During the dry season from October to January, the leaves do not fall, and do not undergo rapid transpiration and evaporation, thus preventing desiccation. Increase in anthropogenic activities around mangrove forest had resulted to the invasion by opportunistic nypa palms (Nypa fruticans) and other alien species. The different plant communities were identified by a plant taxonomist. Mangrove forests are distributed in the inter-tidal region between the sea and the land in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world between approximately 30° N and 30° S latitude.Their global distribution is believed to be delimited by major ocean currents and the 20° C isotherm of seawater in This paper contributes to the assessment of floristic diversity and community structure of mangrove forests in two sites in the Northern Province; Mandaitivu and Arali. The soil compaction ranges from 0.25–0.75 tonnes/cm, while the pH ranges from 5.0–7.0. They are mostly found in inland areas that have sandy soil. Scientific research is also carried out in the area to identify numerous species found within the forest. At Humingbird Cay, Exuma, Bahamas, distributions of bothRhizophora mangle (red mangrove) andAvicennia germinans (black mangrove) are closely correlated with amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the soil.R. The red mangrove trees are economically most viable as the main source of fire wood for cooking, medicinal herbs and dyes for clothes. The Florida Museum is open! The mangrove soil is red in color and has life-saving gas that breathes life into the entire mangrove ecosystem. Recently, there has been increasing interest to understand the composition and contribution of microorganisms in mangroves. germinans are lower (mean = 22 mg/l), but the … The warmest months are February, March and early April in most parts of the Niger Delta Region. They have green leaves and hairy round seeds (Figure 1c). … Stem diameter of the mangrove trees ranged from 0.01 to 16 cm. Avicennia germinans had the largest diameter among species. In the Niger Delta people feed on products of animals and insects that live in mangrove forest such as honey combs built by bees in thick mangrove forest. 1. The solution was stored and phosphorus was determined using Calorimetric Method [53]. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. It represents about 12% of Nigeria’s total surface area and it is predicted that by the year 2020 its population would have exceeded 45 million inhabitants, which is almost two third of the entire population of Nigeria (i.e. Muddy soil supports nypa palms while sandy soil supports different grass species, core mangrove soil supports red mangroves (R. racemosa), which are the most dominant of all species, with importance value (Iv) of 52.02. The wood is also used as support pillars and reinforcements for locally built houses and bridges across small rivers or canals. They are also under intense pressure from development, population spread and pollution. The sweet smelling aroma is also used in the manufacture of creams and perfumes; and also bathing soaps that are produced locally. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. The consequence of this situation is the clearing of more mangrove forests. In the last 50 years, human activities have strongly affected mangrove distributions, resulting in declines or expansions of worldwide mangrove area. (1997) to occupy 18,100,000 ha worldwide, but this estimate of global coverage was revised downward to 13,776,000 ha by Giri et al. For instance, results from a fieldwork I embarked on indicates that total organic content (TOC) was higher in farm (1.99 ± 0.01%) and Nypa palm (1.87 ± 0.01%) soils than in mangrove soils (1.01–1.48%). The beaker was rotated again and the flask was allowed to stand on a sheet of asbestos for about 30 min, thereafter, 100 ml of distilled water was added. In Australia, mangroves occur in small pockets around the coastline. Soil samples were weighed in duplicates of 75 g and transferred to 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. This shows that mangrove distribution is strongly influenced by soil types. In contrast, the red mangroves are mostly found in undisturbed pure swampy soils than mixed or contaminated soils. It has been estimated that the highest historical mangrove coverage was 250,000 ha ( State Oceanic Administration, 1996 ). Dredged and sand filled mangrove forest in Buguma, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Temperature greater than 35°C affects root structure, seedling establishment and photosynthetic activity in mangroves [16]. In Victoria and South Australia their distribution is limited and there is only one species - Avicennia marina, the white or grey mangrove.These occupy the most southerly, and highest latitude location for mangroves in the world. Tree height ranged from 0.02 to 6.71 m. The average diameter and average tree height for most locations are not significantly different from each other. 37) (Table 1): Land area and population of people in different states of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Mangroves are largely restricted to latitudes between 30° north and 30° south. Learn what else we are doing to keep you safe. The distribution of mangroves has been mapped through the Queensland wetland mapping and more details can be found in the intertidal and subtidal mapping. 2 g of soil with one tea spoon of carbon black and 40 ml of extracting solution were added into 125 ml of Erlenmeyer flask, and mechanical shaker was used to shake the mixture for 30 min. Moderately warm and wet equatorial areas with high rainfall have rich supply of mangrove populations [21]. Shannon wiener diversity indices (H) of weed species commonly found around mangrove forest in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The problem of data gap in Africa is often cited in many literatures with little done to correct this trend. In Japan, Florida, Bermuda, and the Red Sea, this range extends 5-7° farther north. Simard, M., T. Fatoyinbo, C. Smetanka, V.H. The trees are often cut with chain saw or brought down with bulldozers. Other secondary factors are: air temperature, salinity, ocean currents, storms, shore slope, and soil substrate. The forest is also cut to create room for building residential and industrial quarters. Forty species of mangroves dominate approximately 75% of the world’s tropical coastlines between 25° N and 25° S. In certain locations, this range extends beyond these limits due to the movement of unusually warm waters from the equator. The Galapagos archipelago is not particularly known for its mangrove forests, yet there are mangroves in Darwin’s evolution’s theory backyard. There may have been a few mangroves surrounding small islands and on the coastline in what is currently Georgia. The Niger Delta region makes up 4% of Nigerian population. But they would hardly survive when all the aforementioned factors combine and overwhelm them. Temperatures are generally high in the region and fairly constant throughout the year. The distribution of mangroves is governed by the freshwater inflow, which is directly related to inland rainfall, silt dynamic and tidal water inflow. This is because each stage of oil and gas exploration involves hydrocarbon pollution and physical destruction of the mangrove forest. Tropical conditions are the best for mangroves, but excessive heat cause rapid evaporation leading to increase in salinity [13], which triggers the succession of salt tolerant mangrove species (e.g. The red mangrove trees are more dominant and more adapted to core mangrove soils. Then, 3–4 drops of indicator were added and titrated with 0.5 ml of ferrous sulphate solution. This discontinuity causes intra-specific, morphologic and genetic variation in Rhizophora species [27], which is one of the most dominant mangrove species in the world. The mangrove forest serves as source of water from streams and lakes. Anthropogenic activities such as oil and gas exploration, deforestation, dredging, urbanization and invasive nypa palms had changed the soil type from swampy to sandy mud soil. There are several adaptive features in mangroves [61] including some that are peculiar to the Niger Delta, Nigeria. These areas include the east coast of Africa, Australia, and New Zealand where … However, increase in sea level [22] can drown fringe mangroves [13]. The sandy soil is whitish to dark brown in color, rough to the touch, forms no mold, and has low plasticity, but high porosity. The mangrove forest has a sweet smelling aroma that is therapeutic when one spends time in it. 200 million). The blank titration was prepared in the same manner using the above mentioned steps but without soil to standardize the dichromate. They originated from a hot environment [6] and their distribution is influenced by meteorological events [7] such as temperature [8] and precipitation [9]. There are 54-75 species of true mangroves, which are found only in the intertidal zones of coasts, and are taxonomically isolated from terrestrial counterparts. The mangrove forest also serves as hiding place for natives during local wars. - Sharply defined gap in mangrove distribution on the Yucanatan Peninsula (Mexico) at -90.3W and 21N, which is not present in the World Atlas of Mangroves (2010) dataset. The dbh for trees with small girth were measured with a vernier caliper at an accuracy of 0.01 cm while the stems of larger girth were measured with tapes (Forestry suppliers Inc., Jackson, MS). The giant roots support and provide extra surface area for atmospheric respiration during high tides when the ground roots are submerged in water. No mangrove tree has ever grown in this area since the sand filling in 1984. At harvesting firewood for human use added and titrated with distribution of mangroves ml of K2Cr2O7 solution was accurately pipetted dispensed. Fall, which help to enrich the mangrove soil is the distribution of mangroves of more mangrove forests are indicator healthy. 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