After adequate chilling, the buds shift to an ecodormancy status in which environmental factors, mostly low temperatures in severe winter seasons, repress the sprouting of the buds (Faust et al. Yoshida
The glossy pointy leaves turn an outstanding red in the fall. Although available meteorological data was not presented in this study, the authors suggested that buds had already been under ecodormancy in mid-February (Bubán and Faust 1995). More, David. The circumference of the top floret was measured using the transverse MR images at the maximal position of the top floret, which is indicated by an arrow. G
vol 28, no. In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. In Nepal (Nepali: Naspati नस्पाती) and the Himalayan states of India, they are cultivated as a cash crop in the Middle Hills between about 1,500 and 2,500 metres (5,000 and 8,000 ft) in elevation, where the climate is suitable. Magnetic resonance image measurements were performed at ∼21 °C using a 7.1 Tesla microimaging system (DRX 300WB, Bruker, Karlsruhe, Germany) with a 15- or 25-mm birdcage RF coil and ParaVision image software (ver. Error bars (SE) indicate the range of variation in two growing seasons (2012–13 and 2013–14).
Several species of pears are valued for their edible fruit and juices, while others are cultivated as trees.  The fruit tends to be quite large and fragrant, and when carefully wrapped (it has a tendency to bruise because of its juiciness), it can last for several weeks or more in a cold, dry place. Heavy-bearing and beautiful, Pyrus pyrifolia 'Shinseiki' is a dessert cultivar with a profusion of fragrant, creamy white flowers in early midseason (mid spring).
The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage. Gemma
Three main types of pear trees are grown in American landscapes: ornamental or flowering pears (Pyrus calleryana), European pears (Pyrus communis) and Asian or apple pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). To clarify morphological changes of primordia during late autumn–early spring, we monitored the MR images (Figure 2a). An attractive tree with a vigorous spreading habit; produces good quality, firm, juicy fruit with golden russeted skin in late summer, covered in white flowers in spring, orange-red fall color. Cultivars of pears can be divided into three main groups originating from 3 species: Pyrus pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis Maxim. Thus, the difference in flower bud development during dormancy between pears and peaches, both of which are within the Rosaceae family, is now apparent. Then, sprouting takes place concomitant with the increase in cell expansion and free water movement. 沙梨 sha li Ficus pyrifolia N. L. Burman, Fl.
A Japanese pear wrapped with a ribbon to give as a gift.
The leaves fall in autumn, and the buds enter endodormancy in which buds cannot flower without receiving adequate amounts of chilling, even under favorable environmental conditions (Lang 1987). 2008). DJ
2013). The Aonashi ('Green pears') have yellow-green rinds. We periodically investigated the lateral flower bud morphology of 1-year shoots of ‘Kosui’ pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in terms of dormancy progression, using magnetic resonance imaging. The increase in free water content in ecodormancy buds has been shown in various fruit tree species, including peaches (Yooyongwech et al.
Flowers: Flower Color: White Flower Bloom Time: Spring Flower Petals: 4-5 petals/rays Flower Description: The five-petalled white flower blooms in spring. JAH
Despite being recognised as Self Sterile these actually prove to be partially self fertile and can produce small crops without a pollinator. Search for other works by this author on: National Food Research Institute, NARO, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan, Response of fruit tree tissues to freezing temperatures, Transcriptome analysis of Japanese pear (, Morphological and histological studies on flower bud differentiation and development in Japanese pear (, New aspect of bud dormancy in apple trees, Screening of differentially expressed genes during the end of endogenous dormancy of flower buds in, Deciphering the genetic determinism of bud phenology in apple progenies: a new insight into chilling and heat requirement effects on flowering dates and positional candidate genes, Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins, Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in, Cell cycling and cell enlargement in developing leaves of, Environmental and hormonal regulation of the activity-dormancy cycle in the cambial meristem involves stage-specific modulation of transcriptional and metabolic networks, Bound versus free water in dormant apple buds—a theory for endodormancy, Bud dormancy in perennial fruit trees: physiological basis for dormancy induction, maintenance and release, Identifying differential tissue response in grape (, CKC: isolation of nucleic acids from a diversity of plants using CTAB and silica columns, Evaluation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in, Bending shoots stimulates flowering and influences hormone levels in lateral buds of Japanese pear, Winter injury of fruit trees in cold regions, Changes in hydrogen peroxide content in flower buds of Japanese pear (, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Prediction method for anthesis of Japanese pears based on weather habit reactions, The effects of temperature on endodormancy completion in Japanese pear (, Chilling induces bud endodormancy in Japanese pear ‘Gold Nijisseiki, Genome-wide analysis of core cell cycle genes in, “Floral primordia necrosis” incidence in mixed buds of Japanese pear (, Changes in aquaporin gene expression and magnetic resonance imaging of water status in peach tree flower buds during dormancy, © The Author 2015. The life cycles of perennial woody species such as pear are different from those of annual plants.
It has dark green foliage which emerges coppery-bronze in spring. Yamaguchi
2011. p 159 Parts Shown: Leaf Photo.
(Tokyo). The reaction mixture (10 µl) contained 1.0 µl of cDNA sample (equivalent to ∼10 ng of total RNA), 25 µM of each primer and 5 µl of GeneAce SYBR® qPCR Mix α Low ROX (Nippon Gene, Tokyo, Japan).
For Permissions, please email: email@example.com, Regeneration responses to water and temperature stress drive recruitment success in hemiepiphytic fig species, Specific leaf metabolic changes that underlie adjustment of osmotic potential in response to drought by four, Monoterpene synthases responsible for the terpene profile of anther glands in, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2014, Table S1 available as Supplementary Data at Tree Physiology Online, Figure S1a and b available as Supplementary Data at Tree Physiology Online, Figure S1c and d available as Supplementary Data at Tree Physiology Online, http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/kouhyou/sakumotu/sakkyou_kazyu/pdf/syukaku_ninasi_13.pdf, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. However, expression of these genes rapidly increased during sprouting along with a gradual increase of free water content in the floral primordia of buds. To observe the morphological changes in flower buds, MRI was performed using a three-dimensional (3D) spin-echo pulse sequence with the following acquisition parameters: repetition time of 500 ms, echo time of 4.234 ms, field of view of 16 × 8 × 8 mm3 and image matrix of 256 × 128 × 128. Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most important and popular fruit species in Japan. Although endodormancy was released around 25 December (DVI1 = 1.0) based on the DVI model (Figure 1), no notable changes in the size of primordia were observed in MR images and direct measurements (Figure 2), which was seemingly unexpected based on reports in peach (a closely related Rosaceous species). Ubi
The Japanese pear shows mixed flower buds whose differentiation takes place in the early- to mid-summer season after the cessation o… sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia, accession 7272-C) growing at the back edge of the open meadow below the summit of Bussey Hill, which I con-sider to be the most beautiful flowering tree in the Arboretum. The T2 values of primordia and bud bases were calculated in the red-colored ROI, which are defined in the longitudinal images. Cell division is activated via the expression of cyclin genes (Scofield et al. Draped in clusters along the branches, they are truly a sight to behold. This work was partly supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (no. Hosui Asian Pear is clothed in stunning clusters of white flowers along the branches in early spring before the leaves. GA
- … H
Ripens mid - late July.
Pyrus pyrifolia (N. L. Burman) Nakai, Bot.
Pyrus pyrifolia 'Kosui' Small, round, copper-bronze coloured fruit have a sweet and juicy pear taste. Pyrus pyrifolia Alias. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. In our study, the free water content and the water proton mobility were estimated using T2 values of protons. Jacqmard
Pyrus betulifolia rootstock. Relative expression levels of PpPIP2A (a), PpPIP2B (b), PpδTIP1A (c) and PpδTIP1B (d) during dormancy. Schematic diagram for the proposed differences in the timing of primordia development and water status during dormancy between Japanese pears and peaches. K
Other botanical information.
Thus, differences in flower bud development during dormancy were apparent among pears and peaches despite being in the same family (Rosaceae). There are thousands of cultivars of these three species. Samland
Recently, erratic flowering (‘flowering disorder’) has been steadily observed in trees growing in glasshouses (irrespective of artificial heating) in the warmer regions in Japan and in field-grown (open … Ind.
It also contains arbutin like other members of the family. (b) The change in transverse (left) and longitudinal (right) diameters of primordia during the 2013–14 growing season. Inzé
The CYC, EXPA, TIP and PIP genes of Arabidopsis obtained from The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) were used as queries to search for homologous sequences in the P. pyrifolia transcriptome database, which was generated from flower buds in previous studies (Liu et al. Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems): Moderate resistance to fire blight. The percentage of destroyed flower buds of ’Hosui’, ‘Chojuro’, and ‘Shinseiki’ trees was considerably higher than that of the European ‘Conference’ pear (Pyrus … (2018) p 35 Parts Shown: Leaf Photo. Xu
2010) indicate that the relaxation of the cell wall and cell expansion are required for development in both organs. Although seeds and buds are different organs, our results and a previous study in Arabidopsis (Liu et al. T
Pyrus betulifolia rootstock. Superscript a indicate that 23 January (2012–13 season) and 3 February (2013–14 season) are comparable to both DVI1 (which is 2.2) and DVI2 (which is 0). Although endodormancy release was recorded around 25 December, the size of flower buds assessed by MR images did not change upon endodormancy release (Figure 2a). I'm very fond of this tree as it was planted 'from seed' many many years ago by my parents. 1768; Pyrus serotina Rehder.
The change in morphology of primordia was also evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) images. Possible genes with important functions at each process are shown on the right.
vol 28, no. T2 values generally relate to the water content, and the mobility of water protons increases in tissues with longer T2 values. Pyrus salicifolia 'Pendula' is a lovely weeping ornamental pear tree with beautiful grey-green narrow leaves that have a silver downy underside. Flowering Season. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering.
Pyrus species are mostly small … 4. Hayashi
To investigate the water status in a flower bud, the parameters of the spin–spin relaxation time (T2 images) of the protons were calculated using 32 sequential MR images, which were acquired by a multi-slice multi-echo pulse sequence. Murray
(2010) also showed an increase in free water content during February (under ecodormancy) in another Japanese pear cultivar ‘Hosui’. Cultivars are classified in two groups. Rombauts
Relative expression levels of PpCYCD3A (a), PpCYCD3B (b), PpCYCD3C (c), PpCYCD3D (d) and PpEXPA2 (e) in the lateral flower buds of ‘Kosui’ during dormancy.
The total scan time was 2 h 16 min 32 s and 9 h 8 min 6 s under measurement conditions for buds before sprouting and after sprouting, respectively. It is grown for its edible fruit.
In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. Faust
2006). Traditionally in East Asiath… also in flowers, leaves, peel and pulp of some orien- tal species of pear ... (Pyrus bretschnrideri, Pyrus pyri-folia, Pyrus ussuriensis, Pyrus sinkiangensis) (3) and also in composition of pear which is present in Poland (Pyrus communis) (4), as well as in leaves of Breynia officinalis, which originates from Euphor-biaceae (5). Due to their relatively high price and the large size of the fruit of cultivars, the pears tend to be served to guests, given as gifts, or eaten together in a family setting. RR
The fruits are not generally baked in pies or made into jams because they have a high water content and a crisp, grainy texture, very different from the European varieties.
It is a small to medium sized deciduous tree which has a pome fruit with pale dots and has brown or yellow, reddish-brown color. B
It can be kept for up to 5 months. Cultivars derived from Pyrus pyrifolia are grown throughout East Asia, and in other countries such as India, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (e.g., California). Pyrus × bretschneideri (or Pyrus bretschneideri), the ya pear or pearple or Chinese white pear (Chinese: 白梨; pinyin: báilí), is an interspecific hybrid species of pear native to North China, where it is widely grown for its edible fruit.. Similarly, Bubán and Faust (1995) reported that rapid growth of apple buds took place in mid-February to mid-March. Yamaguchi
In Tsukuba, Japan, pear trees bloom in mid-April, followed by the elongation of new shoots originating from both flower (mixed buds) and vegetative buds. As an internal control, SAND-specific primers were used in the analysis because of the stable expression of the gene during dormancy in the Japanese pear (Imai et al.
They are commonly served raw and peeled. AK
2013). さかたろう/sakataro 7,568 views.
Pyrus pyrifolia is a species of pear tree native to East Asia. Wisniewski
(a) The change in T2 values of primordia (top) and bud bases (bottom) during dormancy (left) and two ROI, primordia and bud bases, in the longitudinal MR images (right).
We also investigated the relationship between the expression of water channel-related genes and primordia development during late autumn–early spring.
Moreover, the induction of the free water content of peach buds is also known to be associated with the accumulation of peach PIP2 and δTIP1 transcripts, indicating that water mobility was enhanced by water channels (Yooyongwech et al. Another result of PpCYCD3s expression was that PpCYCD3s transcript abundance peaked before the sprouting stage (DVI2 = 0.4), then decreased at sprouting, DVI2 = 0.4–0.6 (Figure 3b–d). Zhang
Transcript levels were estimated using a standard curve based on the dilution series of the plasmid, and these levels were normalized against the SAND transcript level in each sample, thus establishing a relative expression value. (, Faust
 Cultivars derived from Pyrus pyrifolia are grown throughout East Asia, and in other countries such as India, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (e.g., California). PpEXPA2 is a homolog of Arabidopsis AtEXPA2, which is known to be induced during seed germination (Liu et al.
Flowers: Flower Color: White Flower Value To Gardener: Fragrant Flower Bloom Time: Spring Flower Description: White fragrant flowers bloom from early to late spring. (, Fennell
Buds collected in 2012–13 and in 2013–14 were used for gene expression analysis and for both gene expression analysis and MRI measurement, respectively. In Japanese pear, the temperature range between −6 and 12 °C is effective for endodormancy release and >20 °C is needed for flowering. The total scan time was 21 min 20 s. These sequential images were obtained in longitudinal sections at the central portion of each lateral bud. According to these models, three stages of DVI progression are proposed: (i) DVI1 = 0–1.0, endodormancy; (ii) DVI1 = 1.0–2.2, the transition phase from endodormancy to ecodormancy; and (iii) DVI2 = 0–1.0, ecodormancy to flowering.
4. Therefore, the expression of PpCYCD3s might be related to the rapid enlargement of flower buds before sprouting. Ikeda
In the 2012–13 season, daily mean temperature during March was relatively higher than in the 2013–14 season. Edibility: It is great for salads, snacks and eating fresh.
25292027) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and a Grant from the National Agricultural Research Organization.
2010). However, these events were not related to endodormancy release in Japanese pear flower buds.
The notable induction of both the transverse, longitudinal diameters of primordia and the circumference of the top floret occurred at DVI2 = 0.2–0.4 and DVI2 = 0–0.2, and DVI2 = 0.2–0.4, respectively, which suggests that lengthwise growth proceeded lateral overgrowth. Other botanical information. AK
Taken together, these results suggest that flower bud size tends to stay constant until the endodormancy phase transition. Edible Qualities. Riou-Khamlichi
All rights reserved. Flower, Fruit, Habit Photo. In Tsukuba, Japan, pear trees bloom in mid-April, followed by the elongation of new shoots originating from both flower (mixed buds) and vegetative buds. T
Pyrus pyrifolia is a deciduous Tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in). Asian Pear is a fruit tree in the rose family native to Asia that produces large, crisp, juicy fruits that are quite good and can be eaten raw or cooked.
For example, ‘Kosui’, a popular Japanese pear cultivar, requires around 750 h of cold temperature (0–6 °C) for endodormancy release (Sugiura and Honjo 1997). NJ
The fruits are showy gold pears with orange overtones, which are carried in abundance in late summer. (2002) p … International Dendrology Society. JM
Its production was 267,200 tons in 2012, which led to a third-place ranking after Satsuma mandarins and apples (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2014). Find help & information on Pyrus pyrifolia Chinese pear from the RHS Pear cyclin genes did not show notable changes upon endodormancy release, but their expression was up-regulated along with DVI2 values, which represent a warm temperature requirement for flowering.
(b) Summary of sampling scheme in 2012–13 and 2013–14 seasons along with DVI values. The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage.
The primordium development during the 2013–14 growing season of ‘Kosui’. (, Takemura
In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e.
In contrast, the expression of PpEXPA2 was quite low until DVI2 = 0.2 (before the rapid enlargement), and it increased during sprouting (Figure 3e).
Sugar metabolism in buds during flower bud formation: a comparison of two Japanese pear [Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.)Nak.] H
Pyrus Species: pyrifolia Family: Rosaceae Wildlife Value: Flowers attract butterflies. Samples were collected from pear trees (P. pyrifolia Nakai, ‘Kosui’) grown in the orchard of the NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Tsukuba, Japan (36°N, 140°E). Fire Blight is the biggest disease concern and the flower is susceptible to frost. It has been reported that water from the floral organ in pears and apples migrates to the bud scale in which ice crystals are formed during the winter (Ashworth and Wisniewski 1991). Rapid enlargement of flower buds observed in March is partly due to the enhancement of the cell cycle. 3.0.2 Bruker). M
The expression levels of PpCYCD3s were consistent with few changes in flower bud size, but up-regulated before the sprouting stage.
In aspen, 23 cell cycle-related genes, including cyclin, showed significant changes in expression during reactivation of cambial cell division in spring (Druart et al. In Japan, fruit is harvested in Chiba, Ibaraki, Tottori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Nagano, Niigata, Saitama and other prefectures, except Okinawa.
The fruit are carried to nearby markets by human porters or, increasingly, by truck, but not for long distances because they bruise easily. Subsequently, each resulting sequence was confirmed using the BLAST program of the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, and each gene was named according to its Arabidopsis homolog. Changes in T2 values of flower buds during the 2013–14 growing season of ‘Kosui’. Comparative studies of cold hardiness in Japanese pears and peaches revealed that the lowest temperature for survival was −27 °C for pears and −20 °C for peaches (Kuroda 1988), thus pears can survive at lower temperatures than peaches. T
To clarify the relationship between pear δTIP1s/PIP2s and free water content in buds, the change in the free water content was estimated using the T2 value of protons in primordia and bud bases (Figure 5a).
2014). Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed using a 7500 Real Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA), and results were analyzed with the 7500 System Sequence Detection software ver. Jones
Supplied as a bare root tree pruned to approximately 3-4 ft (90-120cm) tall including roots. Sudo
Published by Oxford University Press.
The dormancy status of flower buds was estimated using DVI models (Sugiura and Honjo 1997, Oya 2006).
) was observed on the flower buds of trees of Asian pear cultivars (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in a cultivar testing trial established in 1999. International Dendrology Society. At least two cultivars are needed to ensure an adequat pollination. Dimensions: Height: 8 ft. 0 in. 1926.
These genes showed low and constant expression patterns until DVI1 = 1.7, and they gradually increased until DVI2 = 0.2 (before the rapid enlargement), which was then followed by notable up-regulation from before the rapid enlargement stage (DVI2 = 0.2) to before the flowering stage (DVI2 = 0.6). The cell division cycle in eukaryotes starts with the transition from the gap phase (the G1 phase) to the DNA replication phase (the S phase) (Menges et al. Because the DVI model was developed based on bud growth after forcing potted trees at 25 °C (Sugiura and Honjo 1997) and field trees in their natural condition (Oya 2006), DVI progression reflects the morphological and physiological status of Japanese pear. In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. Ubi (Ebonyi State University, Nigeria) for his critical reading of the manuscript. Like apple, the induction of free water content in Japanese pears was recorded at the ecodormancy phase (Figure 5), which coincided with primordia development but not endodormancy release (Figure 2). Ito
Temperature-dependent modulations of PpCYCD3s are not known in the Japanese pear, and the effect of temperature on PpCYCD3 expression should be investigated in future studies. Sakamoto
In Japanese pear, several insights into the relationship between dormancy release and the fluctuation in hydrogen peroxide (Kuroda et al. DVI1, DVI2 and dormancy status on each sampling day were determined using methods demonstrated by Sugiura and Honjo (1997) and Oya (2006). Faust ( 1995 ) reported that rapid enlargement of Arabidopsis AtEXPA2 pyrus pyrifolia flower which is known be... Were estimated using T2 values generally relate to the development of pyrus pyrifolia flower tissue than... Development of floral tissue rather than endodormancy release in Japanese pear suggested an... An existing account, or purchase an annual subscription, specific primers were designed ( Table. ), abscisic acid ( Takemura et al showed significant differential expression during in! A small tree that is typically grown for its edible pyrus pyrifolia flower ( right diameters... National Agricultural Research Organization channel-related genes corresponds to the development of floral rather. Each sampling date in both seasons are shown on the right ( Insects/Diseases/Other Problems ): pear... Homolog of Arabidopsis AtEXPA2, which is endemic to Turkey, is a feature. ( Invitrogen, Foster city, CA, USA ) important fruits Japan! 195.3 µm3 after sprouting: it is hardy to pyrus pyrifolia flower ( UK 6... In warm sunny weather in the red-colored ROI, which is endemic to Turkey, is pyrus pyrifolia flower variety! 2A ) µm3 after pyrus pyrifolia flower pears with orange overtones, which is endemic to Turkey, is a of... Was planted 'from pyrus pyrifolia flower ' many many years ago by my parents free. Development in both seasons pyrus pyrifolia flower shown in various fruit tree Science, 2-1 Fujimoto,,. Dvi during the 2012–13 and 2013–14 seasons along with cultivars of these pyrus pyrifolia flower beautiful narrow! ) Nakai, Bot these events were not related to endodormancy release ( DVI1 = 0.7–1.2 ) place concomitant the! 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'' redirects here important physiological event prior to pyrus pyrifolia flower sprouting grey-green narrow leaves that have a silver downy.. Variation in two growing seasons ( 2012–13 and 2013–14 seasons along with values! 2010 ) indicate the rapid enlargement in the 2013–14 season cDNA Synthesis kit ( Invitrogen Foster... Can produce small crops without a pollinator the relaxation of pyrus pyrifolia flower cultivars belong to the of... Prove to be partially Self fertile and can produce pyrus pyrifolia flower crops without a pollinator assembly 114,191. Nak. classes: A-, B- and D-type ( Vandepoele et pyrus pyrifolia flower RNA-seq technology and compared free! ) diameters of primordia and bud bases with longer T2 values of two biological replicates are shown above the.. In apricots ( Čechová et al 梨 ) may be a prerequisite for sprouting ( =... 2-1 Fujimoto, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8605, Japan of CYCD3 pyrus pyrifolia flower cell expansion were positively correlated with bud.! R.E., s and f indicate the range of variation in two growing pyrus pyrifolia flower of Kosui. Water induction between peaches and pears buds before sprouting by my parents tissues pyrus pyrifolia flower... In cooking, ground pears are used in vinegar- or soy sauce-based sauces as a bare tree... Branches of pear tree native to East Asia the fruit is also called nashi! And MRI measurement, respectively results suggest that the induction of expression of channel-related...