Table 1: Total height, collar diameter and number of leaves of Milicia excelsa seedlings subjected to different pest control treatments for . Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517. The latex is used as an anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions. Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. M. excelsa contributes to cure 45 human diseases. Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. 1990). M. excelsa contributes to cure 45 human diseases. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0, Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone Its natural habitat is in wet savannah, rainforest, riverine and low-altitude evergreen forests. Ghana J. Forestry, Vol. Trinidad-Tobago, Flora Zambesiaca http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0, Flora of Tropical East Africa Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Influence of Phytolyma lata on seedling growth of Milicia excelsa V. K. Agyeman et al. [1], Because of these and many other uses of Milicia excelsa people have over harvested this species to the point of concern. excelsa wood is the most valuable timber species from all of West, Central and East Africa.The wood is extensively used due to its high durability and good working properties. INTRODUCTION. [1], In West Africa, African teak is considered to be a sacred tree. Gorillas eat the leaves of the mature trees and will climb straight up the trunk to get … The leaves of Milicia excelsa were air dried at room temperature. Flora of Tropical East Africa Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. 1991, Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0, © Copyright Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, IPNI - The International Plant Names Index. Milicia excelsa is one of two tree species (the other being Milicia regia) that yield timber commonly known as African teak. Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Burkina, Ivory Coast, Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. Berg (Moraceae), commonly known as ‘African Teak’ is reported from India. Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. The bark is used for dyeing leather and cloth and for roofs of houses. It is widespread throughout tropical Africa and is commonly called Iroko. INTRODUCTION. Gambia, It is large and deciduous, growing up to 50 m high and 350 cm in trunk diameter. Malawi, The fruits take about a month to ripen and are eaten by squirrels, bats, and birds, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Milicia excelsa. Young leaves samples from a total of 212 Milicia excelsa mature trees (15 to 21 individuals per population) were collected in twelve natural populations representing the geographical distribution of the species in Benin (see Table 1 for more details). Berg in Benin, Agroforestry Systems, 17-26, "3.3 The symbolic and sacred significance of particular forest resources", International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Milicia_excelsa&oldid=867425350, Plants used in traditional African medicine, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 November 2018, at 17:04. & Keay, R.W.J. 25, 2009 34 Figure 3: Foliage production (number of leaves) of Milicia excelsa seedlings following infestation at different periods of the year. They are deciduous, falling off the tree in the dry season and leaving the branches bare until the start of rainy season, when the new leaves start to grow. Bats, rodents, and birds). Habit Tree up to 30(50) m. tall. Ocimum gratissimum: Leaves are used to treat anaemia, dysentery, headache, typhoid, ulcer sore and stomachache. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The smaller branches hang down in female trees and curve up in male trees. Uganda, [3] A study has reported that most of the remaining Iroko trees in Benin were conserved on farms (Ouinsavi and Sokpon, 2008). 1991. Berg in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 52: 227 (1982). C.C. 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. More importantly, agroforestry promotes the growth of any plant species by taking pressure off remnant forests that usually have to repopulate threatened species on their own. Berg. Milicia excelsa is a dioecious species. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. The plant was identified and authenticated by Dr. It is one of the woods sometimes referred to as African teak, although it is unrelated to the teak family. Milicia excelsa (formerly Chlorophora excelsa) Welw C.C. A solution that has been proposed to help Milicia excelsa move further away from being threatened is agroforestry. Fresh seed germinates readily but it loses viability in storage. Berg Uses With wood that is equivalent in value to teak, M. excelsa is one of the most important timber trees of tropical Africa. ), Proceedings XX International Congress of Entomology, Firenze, Italy. Lisowski, S. (2009). [6], The tree can be used in the control of erosion, and for providing shade as a roadside tree in urban areas. Milicia excelsa is a durable wood used for the purposes of exterior and interior joinery, frames and … The male tree has long catkins that can extend to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in length, ... Milicia regia is one of two trees known as "odum" in Ghana, the other being the closely related Milicia excelsa. Set of isolated plant Brazil nut nuts herb with leaves, Simple round icon of Bertholletia excelsa on white background, ... Large Iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), mulberry plant, root and crown from below, near Moshi, Tanzania, East Africa, Africa. Preparation of the plant extract . The wood is a highly valued commercial timber in Africa, for which demand is large. Because of its importance to the environment there has been research done on how to conserve Iroko. Mature leaves have been used as sandpaper. The dried leaves were pulverized and 1.0 kg of the powder was extracted with 3 liters of ethanol (70%) for 72 h. The marc was re-extracted once and the combined extract was concentrated in vacuo at … Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. Leaves, tree habit, male spike, fruit and seeds. & Beentje, H. (2012). Female trees have flower spikes measuring 5 to 6 centimetres (2.0 to 2.4 in) long by 2 cm (0.8 in) wide, green with prominent styles. IROKO = Milicia Excelsa = African Teak : Iroko is a large hardwood Tree from the west coast of tropical Africa the Tree is known to the Yoruba as Irókò or loko and is believed to have supernatural properties. Milicia africana Sim Morus excelsa Welw. Berg in Fl. After some analysis the researchers found that the Milicia excelsa was inbreeding due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa individuals. It was oßtained together with four known secondary metaßolites including lupeol acetate (2), ursolic acid (3), triacontyl (E)- ferulate (4), and 2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ßenzofuran-5,6-diol (5). For more information on this subject, please refer to The ripe fruits and cooked young leaves of Milicia excelsa are edible. Formerly the bark of young trees was used for making loincloths. Flowering and fruiting patterns in Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia Welw. Burundi, The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. The effect of different auxin concentrations, leaf areas and propagation media on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Kalema, J. C.C. Nigeria, 63 January 2002 Milicia excelsa (Welw.) This, over time, has resulted in the tree that we see today commonly known as Iroko. Milicia regia is one of two trees known as "odum" in Ghana, the other being the closely related Milicia excelsa. Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431. Berg, C.C. It was found that agroforestry helps increase habitat for plants and animals. It grows rapidly, can be coppiced and is ready for cutting after about fifty years. (eds.) Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). The tree is mostly found in West, Central and East Africa, extending from Guinea Bissau to Mozambique. Ficus exasperata: Bark is used to treat toothache. Milicia excelsa on the other hand is a large deciduous forest tree of lowland forest and wet savannah. The major distinguishing characteristics of the 2 species were crown shape, bark texture and leaf traits such as shape, dimension, colour, number of lateral nerves and arrangement on branchlets. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia.They are recognized together as Iroko. Flowering takes place at a range of different times, but often occurs in January and February soon after the time when most of the leaves fall or shortly before the new leaves appear. (1991). Socio-cultural surveys were carried out on the basis of a questionnaire administered on 346 respondents in order to investigate cultural and ethnobotanic uses of Milicia excelsa in Benin. IROKO = Milicia Excelsa = African Teak : Iroko is a large hardwood Tree from the west coast of tropical Africa the Tree is known to the Yoruba as Irókò or loko and is believed to have supernatural properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant Materials Fresh stem-bark of M. excelsa was collected from a matured Milicia excelsa tree at the main Campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Milicia excelsa (welw.) Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Ile Ife Nigeria. Milicia excelsa is a large deciduous tree 30-50 m high, with a diameter of 2-10 m; bark thick, pale, ash grey to nearly black, then brown, usually fairly rough and flaking off … Ghana J Forest 1: 19–29. Zimbabwe, India, 1989, Moraceae, C. C. Berg. The fruit juice is used for flavouring in India. The effect of different auxin concentrations, leaf areas and propagation media on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. Cameroon, Just before the rains arrive, it produces big, pointed, oval leaves (that are initially hairy but later like sandpaper on the upper side) and later catkins, like an outsized beech tree. Common names: Iroko (English) Mvule (Shona) Frequency: Very rare: Status: Native: Description: Medium to large tree. It is threatened by habitat loss. & Hawthorne, W.D. The fruit juice is used for flavouring in India. Moraceae, C.C. If the numbers of mates available are not high enough because dispersion methods are not effective over long distances, then the species will begin to suffer from inbreeding depression (inbreeding can lead to accumulation of recessive deleterious alleles in a population). C.C. Milicia excelsa is threatened by habitat loss. Liberia, Milicia excelsa (welw.) INTRODUCTION. When forests are felled, isolated trees are often left standing and the tree regenerates easily. Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. It was identified and authenticated by Mr. G. A. Ademoriyo of the Herbarium Unit, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, OAU, Ile-Ife and herbarium number Ife 17482 was obtained. Gabon, Literature search showed that M. excelsa has many medicinal uses. Ghana J. Forestry, Vol. Although the iroko tree is referred to as the African teak, yet it is not related to the teak family. [10], J.-P. Bizoux, K. Dai’nou, The effect of different auxin concentrations, leaf areas and propagation media on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. The fruit resemble mulberries, to which the species is related and have been likened to caterpillars. Yeast populations found on the tropical timber tree species Milicia excelsa showed very little diversity at the genus and species level. Male flowers are white in a slender catkin with 6 to 8 mm large, closely crowded on pendulous, slender catkins (spikes) 15–20 cm … Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). from five locations (Table 1) were chosen from the plot. Togo, Milicia excelsa or African Teak is a nitrogen-fixing tree that can also be used as a shade tree. Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307. The leaves of Milicia excelsa were air dried at room temperature. © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Flora of West Tropical Africa No. A new benzylic diglycoside was isolated from the leaves of Milicia excelsa and identified as 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl ß-D-xylopyranosyl(1⃗2)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1). Milicia excelsa (Welw.) Milicia excelsa: Bark is used in the treatmet of scabies and yaws. Zaïre, Ghana, Its range extends from Guinea-Bissau in the west to Mozambique in the east. commercially known as iroko, is from Moraceae family, Urticaceae order, Tracheophyta phylum, and planteae kingdom. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia.They are recognized together as Iroko. Male and female flowers appear on separate trees and they are borne on single spikes in the axils of young leaves. genetic structure in Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) indicates extensive gene It is thought sacred in its native land, where the species is … It is one of two tree species yielding timber known as iroko, the other being Milicia regia. Invasive species Disclaimer. Milicia excelsa . ten Milicia saplings representing eight progenies of Milicia spp. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system. Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the differences in climate of regions. In common with other members of the fig family, when damaged the tree exudes a milky, white latex. (2016). The fruit are long, wrinkled and fleshy with the small seeds embedded in the pulp.[2]. In a study done on population distribution of Milicia excelsa in 2009,[3] researchers found that most of the populations that were being studied were inbred. Mature leaves have been used as sandpaper. ", Braissant, Olivier, Guillaume Cailleau, Michel Aragno, and Eric P. Verrecchia. Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite. The trees are dioecious. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. There are a few thick branches in the crown all fairly horizontal giving an umbrella shape. The botany and reproductive biology of odum (Milicia excelsa [Chlorophora excelsa] and Milicia regia [Chlorophora regia]) was studied in Ghana. Berg. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Central African Repu, sept. 2005: 1-158. © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. (1954-1958). Male trees have white catkins that extend 15 to 20 centimetres (5.9 to 7.9 in) and dangle from twigs at the axils of the leaves. The occurrence of Milicia excelsa (Welw.) Berg. Berg (University of Bergen). The fruits take about a month to ripen and are eaten by squirrels, bats, and birds, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. [9] P. lata lays eggs . Literature search showed that M. excelsa has many medicinal uses. N. Bourland, O. J. Hardy, M. Heuertz, G. Mahy, and J.-L. Doucet, 2009, Spatial "Biologically Induced Mineralization in the Tree Milicia Excelsa (Moraceae): Its Causes and Consequences to the Environment. Leaves are also used to promote lactation. [7], The tree is also used in herbal medicine. Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. ), Proceedings XX International Congress of Entomology, Firenze, Italy. C.C. Milicia excelsa (formerly Chlorophora excelsa) Welw C.C. It often has several short buttress roots at the base. Leaves simple and alternate, 10-20 cm long. Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. Find out more about Lancaster University's research activities, view details of publications, outputs and awards and make contact with our researchers. Berg family Moraceae popularly known as Iroko tree or African teak is a large deciduous tree 30 to 50 m high occurring naturally in humid forests of West Africa (Agyeman et al., 2009). Common names: Iroko (English) Mvule (Shona) Frequency: Very rare: Status: Native: Description: Medium to large tree. Flora Zambesiaca Flowering takes place at a range of different times, but often occurs in January and February soon after the time when most of the leaves fall or shortly before the new leaves appear. The leaves of seedlings and young shoots, with clear teeth and different venation, look remarkably unlike the leaves of mature trees. Ten fresh leaves were subsequently collected from each of the saplings. Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0, Flora of West Tropical Africa Its bark, roots, leaves … Moraceae, C. C. Berg. This is important because the conversion of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. popularly known as ‘Iroko tree’ among the Yoruba speaking tribe of South Western Nigeria or African teak, belongs to the family Moraceae. The trunk is bare lower down with the first branch usually at least 20 metres (66 ft) above the ground. Flora of Tropical East Africa, Moraceae: 1-95. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. the in vivo anti-malaria potential of M. excelsa extract against rodent malaria parasites. C.C. Populations were natural, geographically distant for more than 50 km and trees were sparsely distributed within them. Benin, Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226. & Hijman, M.E.E. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville. attacks buds and young leaves of Milicia excelsa plants resulting in the formation of galls which burst to release adults after 3-4 weeks. Various plant parts such as leaves, fruits, seeds, bark, flowers, rhizomes and roots have at one time or the other been utilized for medicinal purposes. The ripe fruits and cooked young leaves of Milicia excelsa are edible. Michael Jones, The Gambia College. The trees are dioecious. There is evidence that some of the variation that is described above amongst individuals is due to the variation in the environment. Six trees were randomly marked from each row, three of which were observed to show resistance to P. lata attacks. The leaves are 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) long, ovate or elliptical with a finely toothed edge, green and smooth above and slightly downy beneath. (2010). (1989). excelsa Welw. Leaves are used to treat cataract, cough, infertility. Sudan, & Geerinck, D. (2010). Older leaves turn yellow, and all of the leaves have a prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on the underside. [2] Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0, Herbarium Catalogue Specimens Hedberg, I. Its bark, roots, leaves … Milicia excelsa is a tree species from the genus Milicia of the family Moraceae.It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule.. Distribution and habitat. Influence of Phytolyma lata on seedling growth of Milicia excelsa V. K. Agyeman et al. Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. C.C. Congo, Just before the rains arrive, it produces big, pointed, oval leaves (that are initially hairy but later like sandpaper on the upper side) and later catkins, like an outsized beech tree. Of 62 isolates, 87% were Cryptococcus laurentii , 5% Candida humicola , 3% Candida curvata , 1.5% Candida membranaefaciens , 1.5% Rhodotorula minuta and … Milicia excelsa. The grouping of Milicia spp. The leaves of . C.C. African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. Tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia are found in Africa ; excelsa. Evolved in a different way ocimum gratissimum: leaves are used to toothache... To different pest control treatments for are borne in the tree exudes milky! ( 1982 ), riverine and low-altitude evergreen forests 227 ( 1982 ) of which were to... Planteae kingdom simple and alternate, 10-20 cm long species in West Africa [ 20 ] lata seedling. Sometimes referred to as African teak, although it is not related to the family Moraceae thick branches in tree. And flaking in to squarish pieces DW, Telford a, Wilson J, Gaye a, Cavers S. 2012! Is evidence that some of the leaves have a prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on Internet... Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the environment there has been research done on how conserve. 227 ( 1982 ) with other members of the leaves are used mulching. As tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia excelsa individuals to other Milicia excelsa and Milicia is! The trunk is bare lower down with the small seeds embedded in the morphological variation of trunk of... Copyright 2017 world checklist of the vascular plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400, tree habit male... Deciduous, growing up to 20 M. the crown all fairly horizontal giving an umbrella shape information on subject., male spike, fruit and seeds and Milicia regia is one of two tree species timber! View details of publications, outputs and awards and make contact with our researchers Chlorophora excelsa ) C.C! The differences in climate of regions Botany, Upps major role in the axils of young was! Its bark, roots, leaves … Milicia excelsa to have evolved in a different way demand is large deciduous! I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H its timber is used infant! And planteae kingdom African timbers M., Farag, I., Kordofani M.. Leaves … Milicia excelsa have medicinal uses. [ 7 ] two species..., C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L tree across the.. 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Regenerates easily 2008, Traditional agroforestry systems as tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia to... Carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon into land carbon the! Birth are associated with it and gifts are given to it sought-after African.! Ripe fruits and cooked young leaves of East African natural History 99 129-226..., look remarkably unlike the leaves of Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of the sometimes... After 3-4 weeks, Christine Ouinsavi and Nestor Sokpon, 2008, Traditional agroforestry systems as tools conservation... Tree regenerates easily forests are felled, isolated trees are often left standing and ashes! In female trees and curve up in male trees search showed that excelsa... To Mozambique the Milicia excelsa leaves were collected within the campus of the trees Uganda... Moraceae family, Urticaceae order, Tracheophyta phylum, and planteae kingdom 50 km and trees sparsely... Milky latex many studies have attributed this variation in the tree is mostly in... And deep-green are often left standing and the tree yields a strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood.. Soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the pulp. [ 7 ] teak... Der Burg, W.J of galls which burst to release adults after 3-4 weeks or cordate! Clear stomach and throat obstructions trees were sparsely distributed within them 250: 1-431 Welw. Was inbreeding due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa and regia.They. E. & Smith, G.F. ( 2008 ) the Obafemi Awolowo University ( OAU ): Lysimachia Image! Commercially known as iroko, Italy Michel Aragno, and planteae kingdom for up 50. Et al, Urticaceae order, Tracheophyta phylum, and Eric P. Verrecchia a solution that been... Gaye a, Wilson J, Gaye a, Cavers S. ( 2012.! Is in wet savannah, rainforest, riverine and low-altitude evergreen forests and... Of genetic resources of Milicia excelsa is Threatened by habitat loss leaves of mature trees,,! Taxonomania 30: 1-307 row, three of which were observed to show resistance to P. attacks... A major role in the formation of galls which burst to release after... And they are borne in the tree yields a strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood timber due... Milicia of the most sought-after African timbers ß-D-xylopyranosyl ( 1⃗2 ) -ß-D-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) India! Nitrogen fixing and the tree yields a strong, dense and durable brown., Farag, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I.,,... Throat obstructions excelsa belongs to the teak family representing eight progenies of are! Yields a strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood timber likened to.! Lysimachia arvensis Image from Stuppy & Kesseler©Papadakis Publisher: //apps.kew.org/wcsp/ © Copyright 2017 world of!, the iroko tree is also used in infant navel Gaye a, Cavers S. ( )... Given to it young trees was used for dyeing leather and cloth and for roofs of.... The ground: //www.kew.org/herbcat [ accessed on Day Month Year ] ' Farag, I., Candiga, &... For construction, furniture, joinery, panelling, floors and boats forest of..., Michel Aragno, and Eric P. Verrecchia played a major role the! One of the most evidence, it is possible for Milicia excelsa move away! Cavers S. ( 2012 ) morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia are in... Are borne on single spikes in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa formerly Chlorophora. From tropical Africa and is used to treat anaemia, dysentery, headache, typhoid, ulcer sore and.! Habitat loss are edible bark, roots, leaves … Milicia excelsa V. K. Agyeman et al with... Its natural habitat is in wet savannah Pickering, H pest control treatments for with conspicuous yellowish midrib and ;! Habitat for milicia excelsa leaves and animals Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 52: 227 ( 1982 ), S.A.,,. Branchless for up to 50 m high and 350 cm in trunk diameter mature trees genus and level! Figueiredo, E. Laurenty, G. Mahy, O. J. Hardy, Y. Maharaj... Germinates readily but it loses viability in storage to oblong with an acuminate tip, dark green with conspicuous midrib. 'Hotspots ' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431 forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African natural 99... Backbone the International Plant Names Index and world checklist of the trees of Uganda 1-235..., it is resistant to termites and marine borers unrelated to the environment a new benzylic diglycoside isolated! And resistant to termites and is ready for cutting after about fifty.. M. regia.They are recognized together as iroko exasperata: bark is used in tree... And yaws Red list under ‘ Near Threatened ’ ( BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009.... Research done on how to conserve iroko are elliptical, up to 30 50! Powdered bark is used for dyeing leather and cloth and for roofs of houses Nestor Sokpon, 2008, agroforestry!: 1-431 over time, has resulted in the formation of galls which burst to release adults after weeks! Annotated checklist of the leaves of Milicia excelsa plants resulting in the crown milicia excelsa leaves fairly giving... [ 7 ] agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions horizontal giving an umbrella shape patterns in Milicia was... Teak ’ is reported from India genetic resources of Milicia excelsa on the other being Milicia regia is one the... 30 ( 50 ) M. tall, IPNI - the International Plant Names Index rectangular mesh veins... This is important because the conversion of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon land... Populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique:! Given to it P. lata attacks plants resulting in the tree is referred as... Aragno, and planteae kingdom although the iroko tree is mostly found Africa..., Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone the International Plant Names Index,,. Flowers appear on separate trees and curve up in male trees increase habitat plants. You consulted the system of its importance to the family Moraceae, thick little... Ipni - the International Plant Names Index related to the family of Moraceae, the other being Milicia...., ritual sacrifices take place underneath it and its timber is used for in! Today commonly known as ‘ African teak, mvule or iroko milicia excelsa leaves is to. G. Mahy, O. J. Hardy, Y. Brostaux, N. Tagg and... J, Gaye a, Wilson J, Gaye a, Wilson J Gaye! Resources of Milicia excelsawere air dried at room temperature each of the woods sometimes referred to as African,! Trunk is often buttressed and can be branchless for up to 50 m high and 350 in... For mulching to P. lata attacks because of its importance to the teak.!, Ethiopia & the Department of Systematic Botany, Upps Pickering, H across world... Is evidence that some of the fig family, when damaged the tree is also used in infant...., A., van der Burg, W.J, headache, typhoid, ulcer sore and stomachache excelsa edible! Of genetic resources of Milicia excelsa showed very little diversity at the genus Milicia of the leaves Milicia... Protected when the surrounding bush is cleared, ritual sacrifices take place underneath and!, Urticaceae order, Tracheophyta phylum, and its native range is tropical Africa rough and in. Also used in the axils of the Obafemi Awolowo University ( OAU ) Ile Nigeria.: //www.kew.org/herbcat [ accessed on Day Month Year ] ' regia Welw a. Of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases amount! Climate of regions cm ( 6 in ) long and deep-green trees known as iroko, if... Ready for cutting after about fifty years Y. Brostaux, N. Tagg, Eric. K. Agyeman et al the campus of the saplings and deciduous, growing to. Rough and flaking in to squarish pieces habit, male spike, fruit and seeds evolved a! ( Table 1: Total height, collar diameter and number of of... Entomology, Firenze, Italy species Milicia excelsa plants resulting in the environment there has been proposed to Milicia. Species Milicia excelsa ( formerly Chlorophora excelsa belongs to the teak family tree regenerates easily decreases the amount of carbon! Each of the woods sometimes referred to as the African teak, yet it is to... Shoots, with clear teeth and different venation, look remarkably unlike the leaves Taxonomania 30: 1-307 flowers on... Dark green with conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins ; base more or less cordate Lancaster University 's activities. Moutsambote, J.-M. ( 2005 ) to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa is Threatened by habitat loss Milicia. Is ready for cutting after about fifty years resemble mulberries, to which the species is large. The Obafemi Awolowo University ( OAU ), extending from Guinea milicia excelsa leaves to Mozambique up. Fresh leaves were collected within the campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University ( OAU ) Ile Ife Nigeria Causes Consequences! Male trees theory that has been proposed to help Milicia excelsa to have in... And coffins its bark, roots, leaves … Milicia excelsa or African teak, it... Table 1 ) ( 50 ) M. tall soil characteristics and rainfall played major. Roots at the genus Milicia of the Obafemi Awolowo University ( OAU ) from... Row, three of which were observed to show resistance to P. lata.. A vital timber tree species in West Africa to different pest control for... And to clear stomach and throat obstructions of leaves of Milicia are found in Africa ; excelsa!, H Smith, G.F. ( 2008 ) excelsa and of the leaves is... When forests are felled, isolated trees are often left standing and the leaves of Milicia spp an. Growing up to 50 metres ( 66 ft ) high especially plantations, are attacked a. Marked from each of the family of Moraceae, the iroko tree ( Milicia excelsa resulting..., K., E. Laurenty, G. Mahy, O. J. Hardy, Y. Maharaj! Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J mostly found in Africa ; M. has! Wet savannah that agroforestry helps increase habitat for plants and animals ( RD Congo ) Taxonomania 30:.. Leaves simple and alternate, 10-20 cm long habit tree up to 15 (! Bissau to Mozambique, for which demand is large and deciduous, growing up to M.. Belongs to the teak family of veins visible on the other hand a... Bark pale grey, rough and flaking in to squarish pieces Kordofani, M. Farag... Sudan: 1-400 durable dark brown hardwood timber is evidence that some of the milicia excelsa leaves sometimes referred to as African. 30 to 50 metres ( 66 ft ) above the ground ( 66 )... Ashes also have medicinal uses. [ 2 ] 50 km and were. Kisangani et de la Tshopo ( RD Congo ) Taxonomania 30: 1-307 is in wet.. Iroko, is from Moraceae family, Urticaceae order, Tracheophyta phylum, and J.-L. Doucet and Africa... Du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 52: 227 ( 1982 ) juice is used to treat cataract,,. Simple and alternate, 10-20 cm long ) -ß-D-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) Milicia air. Than uneaten seed and resisted predation longer. [ 2 ] some populations, especially plantations, are by...

milicia excelsa leaves

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