Natural gas hydrates are crystalline ice-like solids or semi-solids that can impede the passage of natural gas through valves and pipes. Hydrogen & syngas plants. Sulfur exists in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and the gas is usually considered sour if the hydrogen sulfide content exceeds 5.7 milligrams of H2S per cubic meter of natural gas. Although the natural gas that arrives at these straddle extraction plants is already of pipeline quality, in certain instances there still exist small quantities of NGLs, which are extracted at the straddle plants. Natural Gas Processing and Treating. In these cases, separation of oil and gas is relatively easy, and the two hydrocarbons are sent separate ways for further processing. Natural gas is one of the world’s most important sources of energy. This natural gas, because of the rotten smell provided by its sulfur content, is commonly called ‘sour gas’. After initial scrubbing to remove particles, the first step in natural gas processing is the removal of condensate (oil) and water that is achieved by controlling the temperature and pressure of the inlet stream from the well, as shown in Figure 12.4. In fact, according to the USGS, U.S. sulfur production from gas processing plants accounts for about 15 percent of the total U.S. production of sulfur. For over 40 years, Exterran has had a proven legacy of outstanding plant performance, innovation and accountability for all phases of your project. Natural gas hydrates are crystalline ice-like solids or semi-solids that can impede the passage of natural gas through valves and pipes. To reduce the occurrence of hydrates, small natural gas-fired heating units are typically installed along the gathering pipe wherever it is likely that hydrates may form. To learn more about the environmental effects of sour gas treatment and flaring, click here. Most of the liquid, free water associated with extracted natural gas is removed by simple separation methods at or near the wellhead. This step is typically done at the well site. Adsorption occurs when the water vapor is condensed and collected on the surface. Most often, however, the gas contains unacceptable levels of higher-weight hydrocarbon liquids as well as impurities, and it is available only at very low pressures. Before the oil has picked up any NGLs, it is termed ‘lean’ absorption oil. Processing plants remove valuable natural gas liquids from the treated gas. The process used to recover sulfur is known as the Claus process, and involves using thermal and catalytic reactions to extract the elemental sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide solution. Natural Gas Processing; We offer reliable solutions across the natural gas value chain through a broad technology portfolio that includes gas conditioning and treating, fractionation, deep ethane extraction and LPG recovery, and liquid product treating. Natural gas from gas and condensate wells, in which there is little or no crude oil, is termed ‘nonassociated gas’. The John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the learning design unit of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University. However, natural gas found at the wellhead, although still composed primarily of methane, is by no means as pure. An important part of natural gas processing is the removal of sour components, such as H 2 S and CO 2 from natural gas. Passing this heated gas through a saturated desiccant bed vaporizes the water in the desiccant tower, leaving it dry and allowing for further natural gas dehydration. The name of a particular fractionator gives an idea as to its purpose, as it is conventionally named for the hydrocarbon that is boiled off. The entire fractionation process is broken down into steps, starting with the removal of the lighter NGLs from the stream. Essentially, a flash tank separator consists of a device that reduces the pressure of the glycol solution stream, allowing the methane and other hydrocarbons to vaporize (‘flash’). This is a precursor to LPG gas manufacturing process (LPG production process). To learn about the basics of natural gas, including its composition, click here. Use industry-leading technologies for CO₂ and H₂S removal Acid gas treatment and removal technologies separate sour gases—highly corrosive CO 2 and often deadly H 2 S acid gases—from saleable natural gas streams in a process known as gas sweetening. These types of dehydration systems are best suited for large volumes of gas under very high pressure, and are thus usually located on a pipeline downstream of a compressor station. A generalized natural gas processing flow diagram [7]. Cryogenic processes are also used to extract NGLs from natural gas. Natural gas processing is a purification method used on raw natural gas after it is extracted from a well. They usually liquefy at the surface (at atmospheric pressure) and are produced separately as natural gas liquids (NGLs), either in field separators or in gas processing plants. As the natural gas is passed through an absorption tower, it is brought into contact with the absorption oil which soaks up a high proportion of the NGLs. In certain instances, however, specialized equipment is necessary to separate oil and natural gas. Printed: 26 April 2004 - [Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology - Part I.doc] University of Calgary Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology - Part I April 2004 Author: Dr. A.H Younger, P.Eng Revised and Prepared by: Dr Harald F. Thimm & Jason Sullivan Thimm Engineering Inc. 214, 3916 64th Avenue SE Calgary, Alberta T2C 2B4 Methane is the gas found in natural gas, and natural gas processing is used to remove other gases and impurities. The next logical step is NGL (Natural Gas Liquids) extraction and fractionation. ]A. J. Kidnay and W. R. Parrish, Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006, p.16. Our gas processing plants process upstream natural gas from offshore Peninsular Malaysia for consumption of customers in the power generation sector as well as various industries such as petrochemicals. This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. New in Gas Processing Technology-Adrienne Blume, October 01, 2020 Natural gas - Natural gas - Field processing: Sometimes field-production gas is high enough in methane content that it can be piped directly to customers without processing. The heaters ensure that the temperature of the natural gas does not drop too low and form a hydrate with the water in the gas stream. These NGLs are sold separately and have a variety of different uses; including enhancing oil recovery in oil wells, providing raw materials for oil refineries or petrochemical plants, and as sources of energy. In fact, associated hydrocarbons, known as ‘natural gas liquids’ (NGLs) can be very valuable by-products of natural gas processing. In addition to water, oil, and NGL removal, one of the most important parts of gas processing involves the removal of sulfur and carbon dioxide. The first step in natural gas processing is to separate the raw natural gas from the water and condensate. Spanning the entire NG processing chain, we have delivered everything from standardized, modular designs to world-scale, stick-built NGL plants. Natural gas emits 50 to 60 percent less carbon dioxide (CO2) when combusted in a new, efficient natural gas power plant compared with … In certain instances, it is economic to simply leave the lighter NGLs in the natural gas stream. Click here to learn about the transportation of natural gas. The removal of natural gas liquids usually takes place in a relatively centralized processing plant, and uses techniques similar to those used to dehydrate natural gas. Natural gas liquids (NGLs) have a higher value as separate products. Acid gases (H2S and CO2) are separated usually by absorption in an amine solution, as discussed for H2S recovery in a petroleum refinery in Lesson 10. Natural gas processing can occur … Second, these natural gas liquids must be separated themselves, down to their base components. With natural gas that contains even low quantities of water, natural gas hydrates have a tendency to form when temperatures drop. This process allows for the recovery of around 75 percent of butanes, and 85 – 90 percent of pentanes and heavier molecules from the natural gas stream. In addition to the four processes above, heaters and scrubbers are installed, usually at or near the wellhead. Vista completed the detailed engineering design and procurement of a grassroots gas processing facility handling 20 MMSCFD (566 103 Std. You may remember from Lesson 8 that iso-butane is a feedstock to alkylation to produce high-octane gasoline when reacted with C3 and C4 olefins. These hydrates are solid or semi-solid compounds, resembling ice like crystals. The only company worldwide with the know-how and experience to design and operate hydrogen and syngas plants based on proprietary technologies. The sour gas is run through a tower, which contains the amine solution. 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natural gas processing

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